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Conference Papers | 2015

Numerical modelling of biomass grate furnaces with a particle based model

Mehrabian R, Shiehnejadhesar A, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Numerical modelling of biomass grate furnaces with a particle based model, INFUB 10th European Conference on Industrial Furnace and Boilers 2015, 7th-10th of April 2015, Porto, Portugal.

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Technical Reports | 2015

Nutrient recovery by biogas digestate processing

Drosg B, Fuchs W, Al Seadi T, Madsen M, Linke B. Nutrient recovery by biogas digestate processing. IEA Bioenergy (2015): 7-11

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Conference contributions | 2015

Operation and Efficiency of a Wood-Pellet Fired 5 KWel Stirling

Aigenbauer S, Schnetzinger R, Höftberger E, Schmidl C, Haslinger W. Operation and Efficiency of a Wood-Pellet Fired 5 KWel Stirling, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Optimization of a 50 MW bubbling fluidized bed biomass combustion chamber by means of computational particle fluid dynamics

Kraft S, Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Bosch K, Hofbauer H. Optimization of a 50 MW bubbling fluidized bed biomass combustion chamber by means of computational particle fluid dynamics. Biomass and Bioenergy. 4 August 2015;89:31-39.

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An efficient utilization of biomass fuels in power plants is often limited by the melting behavior of the biomass ash, which causes unplanned shutdowns of the plants. If the melting temperature of the ash is locally exceeded, deposits can form on the walls of the combustion chamber. In this paper, a bubbling fluidized bed combustion chamber with 50 MW biomass input is investigated that severely suffers deposit build-up in the freeboard during operation. The deposit layers affect the operation negatively in two ways: they act as an additional heat resistance in regions of heat extraction, and they can come off the wall and fall into the bed and negatively influence the fluidization behavior. To detect zones where ash melting can occur, the temperature distribution in the combustion chamber is calculated numerically using the commercial CPFD (computational particle fluid dynamics) code, Barracuda Version 15. Regions where the ash melting temperature is exceeded are compared with the fouling observed on the walls in the freeboard. The numerically predicted regions agree well with the observed location of the deposits on the walls. Next, the model is used to find an optimized operating point with fewer regions in which the ash melting temperature is exceeded. Therefore, three cases with different distributions of the inlet gas streams are simulated. The simulations show if the air inlet streams are moved from the freeboard to the necking area above the bed a more even temperature distribution is obtained over the combustion chamber. Hence, the areas where the ash melting temperatures are exceeded are reduced significantly and the formation of deposits in the optimized operational mode is much less likely.


Conference contributions | 2015

Outlook for the Project: Future Application and Development of the AshMelT methods

Schwabl M, Wopienka E. AshMelT Workshop “Outlook for the Project: Future Application and Development of the AshMelT methods” (held during de World Sustainable Energy Days 2015), 25th-27th of February, Wels, Austria, 2015.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Parameter Study with Sulfidized Molybdenum Catalyst for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis with Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

Weber G, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Parameter Study with Sulfidized Molybdenum Catalyst for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis with Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Performance of a water gas shift pilot plant processing product gas from an industrial scale biomass steam gasification plant

Kraussler M, Binder M, Fail S, Bosch K, Hackel M, Hofbauer H. Performance of a water gas shift pilot plant processing product gas from an industrial scale biomass steam gasification plant. Biomass and Bioenergy. 4 August 2015;89:50-57.

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In this paper, the performance of a commercial Fe/Cr based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction was investigated. The catalyst was used in a water gas shift pilot plant which processed real product gas from a commercial biomass steam gasification plant with two different qualities: extracted before and extracted after scrubbing with a rapeseed methyl ester gas scrubber. The performance of the WGS pilot plant regarding these two different gas qualities was investigated. For this reason, extensive chemical analyses were carried out. CO, CO2, CH4, N2, O2, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2 and H2S, COS, and C4H4 S were measured. In addition, GCMS tar and NH3 analyses were performed. Furthermore, the catalyst's activity was observed by measuring the temperature profiles along the reactors of the water gas shift pilot plant. During the 200 h of operation with both product gas qualities, no catalyst deactivation could be observed. A CO conversion up to 93% as well as a GCMS tar reduction (about 28%) along the water gas shift pilot plant was obtained. Furthermore, a specific H2 production of 63 g H2 per kg biomass (dry and ash free) was reached with both product gas qualities. No significant performance difference could be observed.


Conference Papers | 2015

Performance of a water gas shift pilot plant processing tar-rich product gas from a commercial biomass steam gasification plant operating at partial load conditions

Kraussler M, Binder M, Hofbauer H. Performance of a water gas shift pilot plant processing tar-rich product gas from a commercial biomass steam gasification plant operating at partial load conditions. International Bioenergy Exhibition and Asian Bioenergy Conference 2015. October 2015, Shanghai, China.

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Conference Papers | 2015

Performance of a Water Gas Shift Unit Processing Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

Kraussler M, Binder M, Fail S, Rauch R, Bosch K, Hackel M, Hofbauer H. Performance of a Water Gas Shift Unit Processing Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification. 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2015, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Production of high purity hydrogen from biomass-derived synthesis gas using dual fluidised bed gasification technology

Loipersböck J., Rehling B., Rauch R., Hofbauer H. Production of high purity hydrogen from biomass-derived synthesis gas using dual fluidised bed gasification technology, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2015

Regulation of land competition in Brazil

Ludwiczek N. Regulation of land competition in Brazil, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Short term online corrosion measurements in biomass fired boilers. Part 1: Application of newly developed mass loss probe

Retschitzegger S, Gruber T, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Short term online corrosion measurements in biomass fired boilers. Part 1: Application of a newly developed mass loss probe. Fuel Process Technol 2015;137:148-156.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Simultaneous online determination of S, Cl, K, Na, Zn and Pb release from a single particle during biomass combustion Part 1: Experimental setup implementation and evaluation

Sommersacher P, Kienzl N, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Simultaneous online determination of S, Cl, K, Na, Zn and Pb release from a single particle during biomass combustion Part 1: Experimental setup implementation and evaluation. Energy and Fuels. 15 October 2015;29:6734-6746.

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The interest in experimental data regarding thermal fuel decomposition as well as the release behavior of ash-forming elements of biomass fuels for modeling and simulation purposes is continuously increasing. On the basis of combustion experiments with lab-scale reactors and single-particle reactors, integral release data regarding ash-forming vapors can be obtained, whereby the release is calculated on the basis of analysis data of the fuel and the ash residues. At the moment, almost no time-resolved release data of ash-forming elements from single particles exist. Therefore, a single-particle reactor was designed, which has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). This reactor can be used for targeted experiments in a temperature range of 250–1050 °C under inert, reducing, and oxidizing conditions. With this reactor, it is possible to simultaneously determine the surface and center temperatures of a biomass particle, weight loss of the particle, and flue gas composition. The reactor has been coupled to an ICP-MS through a gas stream that is sufficiently diluted with Ar. First performance tests with pure salts (KCl, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, ZnCl2, and PbCl2) proved that relevant volatile ash-forming elements can be detected with the ICP-MS. For a further validation of the received signals, combustion tests with Miscanthus pellets have been carried out, whereby the controlled interruption of the experiments has also been investigated. These tests prove that with this system the simultaneous time-resolved determination of S, Cl, K, Na, Zn, and Pb is possible whereby the Cl signal can only be used with restrictions. On the basis of the determined release of ash-forming elements for the entire combustion experiment, a quantification/calibration of the measured intensities has been carried out. The data gained from these tests will provide deeper insights into release processes as well as form a relevant basis for release model development.


Conference contributions | 2015

Sommersacher P, Kienzl N, Brunner T, Obernberger I

Sommersacher P, Kienzl N, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Online determination of the release of inorganic elements using a single particle reactor coupled with an ICP-MS, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference Papers | 2015

State of the art biomass gasification for CHP production – the Ulm plant

Kirnbauer F, Maierhans F, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. State of the art biomass gasification for CHP production – the Ulm plant. Regatec 2015. 7-8 May 2015, Barcelona, Spain.

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Other Presentations | 2015

Survey of modern pellet boilers in Austria and Germany - System design and customer satisfaction of residential installations

Büchner D, Schraube C, Carlon E, von Sonntag J, Schwarz M, Verma VK, Ortwein A. Survey of modern pellet boilers in Austria and Germany - System design and customer satisfaction of residential installations. Applied Energy;160: 390-403.

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The variety of available technical building equipment leads to increasingly complex heating systems with various requirements for efficient operation. Furthermore, in existing buildings the heating system is often historically evolved and contains parts having different ages. Those systems have limited capacity to suit the requirements of replaced components. This paper investigates the operational behavior of small-scale pellet heating systems in Austria and Germany, considering installations in new buildings and boiler replacements in existing buildings and how they are influencing the customer satisfaction.

This investigation was carried out by means of a comprehensive survey for residential customers using pellet fired heating systems. More than 2500 questionnaires were distributed between 2011 and 2013 in Austria, Germany, Greece, Spain and the United Kingdom. In total 293 returned questionnaires were evaluated. The efficiency of the monitored heating systems was estimated using surveyed boiler parameters. Successively, the influence of different operational parameters on the boilers efficiency was evaluated with a statistical analysis, using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation.

Results showed that the correct installation of the monitored pellet heating system is easier for new buildings compared to the replacement of old fossil boilers in existing buildings. Optimal operating conditions are characterized by less frequent ignitions and by higher operational loads. Pellet systems operated with a high efficiency in both building types, but for new buildings it is more likely to occur. More than 87% of the participating customers stated that they are highly satisfied with their pellet boiler.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

The behavior of biomass and char particles in a dual fluidized bed gasification system

Kraft S, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. The behavior of biomass and char particles in a dual fluidized bed gasification system. Powder Technology 2018;338:887-897.

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Biomass gasification in fluidized beds is a complex process in which particles occur in a wide range of size and density. In this paper, the mixing behavior of the char, biomass and bed material in a gasification reactor of a typical dual fluidized bed (DFB) system was investigated in a cold flow model. Experiments with ternary mixtures were performed in which the size and the density of the used particles were varied. For the experiments, a cold flow model was constructed with a full bed material recirculation loop, similar to DFB systems. Experiments revealed that at low fluidization velocities, the smaller char particles and biomass particles occur more preferentially in the bed material recirculation stream. If the fluidization velocities are increased, this tendency diminishes. Furthermore, the experiments showed that the mass fraction of biomass particles in the recirculation stream is always higher than that of the lighter char particles. It is also shown that the current design of the gasification reactor in DFB systems is not optimal. A way to overcome this issue in existing plants is presented.

Conference contributions | 2015

The Influence of Wood Pellet Prices on Heat Generation Costs of Alternative Heating Systems

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Schmid E. The Influence of Wood Pellet Prices on Heat Generation Costs of Alternative Heating Systems, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference Papers | 2015

The role of 1H-indene in product gas of biomass gasification

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. The role of 1H-indene in product gas of biomass gasification. International Bioenergy Exhibition and Asian Bioenergy Conference 2015. October 2015, Shanghai, China.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

The Role of Leak Air in a Double-Wall Chimney

Lichtenegger K, Hebenstreit B, Pointner C, Schmidl C, Höftberger E. The role of leak air in a double-wall chimney. Heat Mass Transfer. 2015;51(6):787-94.

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In modern buildings with tight shells, often room-independent air supply is required for proper operation of biomass stoves. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with flue gas leaving through the pipe and fresh air entering through the annular gap. A one-dimensional quasi-static model based on balance equations has been developed and compared with experimental data. Inclusion of leak air is crucial for reproduction of the experimental results. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Conference contributions | 2015

Time-resolved characterization of PM10 emissions from modern small scale biomass combustion units, including PAHs

Kistler M, Schmidl C, Cetintas EC, Padouvas E, Bauer H, Puxbaum H, Kasper-Giebl A. Time-resolved characterization of PM10 emissions from modern small scale biomass combustion units, including PAHs, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Use of Hazelnut's Pruning to Produce Biochar by Gasifier Small Scale Plant

Colantoni A, Longo L, Evic N, Gallucci F, Delfanti L. Use of Hazelnut‟s Pruning to Produce Biochar by Gasifier Small Scale Plant. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2015;5(3):873-878.

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Biochar is the product of biomass pyrolysis and gasification. One of the possible application of this product is certainly in agronomic sector, as soil amendment. However biochar use in Italy is subordinated to insert this product in fertilizer list, which biochar could be commercialized with. The aim of this paper is to know the biochar from gasification process (using an Imbert downdraft prototype), in particular investigating its potentiality as soil amendment in terms of European and Italian regulations and in terms of physical and chemical characterizations.


Conference Papers | 2015

Validation of a Kinetic Model for the Catalyzed Water Gas Shift Reaction Applying a Fe/Cr Catalyst Processing Wood Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

Kraussler M, Fail S, Plaza Quevedo A, Cortes Guerro JA, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Validation of a Kinetic Model for the Catalyzed Water Gas Shift Reaction Applying a Fe/Cr Catalyst Processing Wood Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification. 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). June 2015, Vienna, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Ventilation of Carbon Monoxide from a Biomass Pellet Storage Tank - A Study of the Effects of Variation of Temperature and Cross-Ventilation on the Efficiency of Natural Ventilation

Emhofer W, Lichtenegger K, Haslinger W, Hofbauer H, Schmutzer-Roseneder I, Aigenbauer S, et al. Ventilation of carbon monoxide from a biomass pellet storage tank - A study of the effects of variation of temperature and cross-ventilation on the efficiency of natural ventilation. Ann Occup Hyg. 2015;59(1):79-90.

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Wood pellets have been reported to emit toxic gaseous emissions during transport and storage. Carbon monoxide (CO) emission, due to the high toxicity of the gas and the possibility of it being present at high levels, is the most imminent threat to be considered before entering a pellet storage facility. For small-scale (<30 tons storage capacity) residential pellet storage facilities, ventilation, preferably natural ventilation utilizing already existing openings, has become the most favored solution to overcome the problem of high CO concentrations. However, there is little knowledge on the ventilation rates that can be reached and thus on the effectiveness of such measures. The aim of the study was to investigate ventilation rates for a specific small-scale pellet storage system depending on characteristic temperature differences. Furthermore, the influence of the implementation of a chimney and the influence of cross-ventilation on the ventilation rates were investigated. The air exchange rates observed in the experiments ranged between close to zero and up to 8 m3h-1, depending largely on the existing temperature differences and the existence of cross-ventilation. The results demonstrate that implementing natural ventilation is a possible measure to enhance safety from CO emissions, but not one without limitations. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.


Conference contributions | 2014

"BioCAT – Clean air technology for small-scale combustion systems"

Reichert G, Wöhler M, Schwabl M, Schmidl C, Aigenbauer S, Bachmaier H, Figl F, Hartmann H, Haslinger W, Kirchhof J, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Turowski P, Voglauer B. BioCAT – Clean air technology for small-scale combustion systems, 4. Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria. (oral presentation)

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