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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2014

Reducing the risk of foaming and decreasing viscosity by two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pressed pulp

Stoyanova E, Forsthuber B, Pohn S, Schwarz C, Fuchs W, Bochmann G. Reducing the risk of foaming and decreasing viscosity by two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pressed pulp. Biodegradation. 2014;25(2):277-89.

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Anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugar beet pressed pulp (SBPP) is a promising treatment concept. It produces biogas as a renewable energy source making sugar production more energy efficient and it turns SBPP from a residue into a valuable resource. In this study one- and two-stage mono fermentation at mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor were compared. Also the optimal incubation temperature for the pre-acidification stage was studied. The fastest pre-acidification, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, occurred at a temperature of 55 °C. In the methanogenic reactor of the two-stage system stable fermentation at loading rate of 7 kg VS/m3 d was demonstrated. No artificial pH adjustment was necessary to maintain optimum levels in both the pre-acidification and the methanogenic reactor. The total HRT of the two-stage AD was 36 days which is considerably lower compared to the one-stage AD (50 days). The frequently observed problem of foaming at high loading rates was less severe in the two-stage reactor. Moreover the viscosity of digestate in the methanogenic stage of the two-stage fermentation was in average tenfold lower than in the one-stage fermentation. This decreases the energy input for the reactor stirring about 80 %. The observed advantages make the two-stage process economically attractive, despite higher investments for a two reactor system. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
 


Conference contributions | 2014

Residential Wood Combustion (RWC) -Investigation of user behavior and operating conditions regarding stoves and their impact on emissions and efficiency

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Figl F, Wöhler M. Residential Wood Combustion (RWC) -Investigation of user behavior and operating conditions regarding stoves and their impact on emissions and efficiency, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Rolle und Potenzial der Bioenergie für die Wärmeversorgung der Zukunft

Haslinger W. Rolle und Potenzial der Bioenergie für die Wärmeversorgung der Zukunft, Technologiegespräche Alpbach 2014, 13th-29th of August 2014, Alpbach, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2014

Scenedesmus obliquus as Source for Biogas: Anaerobic Digestion of Untreated and Pre-treated Biomass.

Gruber M, Zohar E, Jerney J, Bochmann G, Obbard JP, Schagerl M, Fuchs W, Drosg B. Scenedesmus obliquus as Source for Biogas: Anaerobic Digestion of Untreated and Pre-treated Biomass, 15. Tagung der Sektion Phykologie der DGB 2014, 23rd-26th of February 2014, Stralsund, Germany.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2014

Seeing about soil — management lessons from a simple model for renewable resources

Lichtenegger K, Schappacher W. Seeing about soil — management lessons from a simple model for renewable resources. International Journal of Modern Physics C. 2014;25(8).

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Employing an effective cellular automata model, we investigate and analyze the build-up and erosion of soil. Depending on the strategy employed for handling agricultural production, in many cases we find a critical dependence on the prescribed production target, with a sharp transition between stable production and complete breakdown of the system.

Strategies which are particularly well-suited for mimicking real-world management approaches can produce almost cyclic behavior, which can also either lead to sustainable production or to breakdown.

While designed to describe the dynamics of soil evolution, this model is quite general and may also be useful as a model for other renewable resources and may even be employed in other disciplines like psychology.


Conference contributions | 2014

Sicherheit bei der Lagerung von Pellets

Emhofer W. Sicherheit bei der Lagerung von Pellets, Highlights der Energieforschung VIII - Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen 2014, 11th of July 2014, Vienna, Austria

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Conference contributions | 2014

Status fortschrittlicher Biokraftstoffe

Bacovsky D. Status fortschrittlicher Biokraftstoffe, 7. EID Kraftstoff-Forum 2014, 18th-19th of March 2014, Hamburg, Germany

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Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Strategy for the application of novel characterization methods for biomass fuels: Case study of straw

Obernberger I. Strategy for the application of novel characterization methods for biomass fuels: Case study of straw. Energy and Fuels. 2014;28(2):1041-52.

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Because of an increasing interest in the utilization of new and in terms of combustion-related properties rather unknown biomass fuels in heat and power production, advanced fuel characterization tools are gaining rising interest. Currently, ongoing research and development (R&D) focuses on a better and more precise description of the combustion properties of specific biomass fuels by applying new/advanced analysis methods and modeling tools. These novel characterization methods cover combustion tests in specially designed lab reactors, special fuel indices for biomass fuels, and the dedicated application of high-temperature equilibrium calculations. In this paper, a strategy is presented how the information gained from different advanced fuel characterization methods can be combined to characterize a fuel regarding its combustion behavior in a novel way. By means of this strategy, relevant qualitative and quantitative information regarding the ash-melting behavior, aerosol, SOx, HCl, and NOx emissions to be expected, and high-temperature corrosion risks can be gained. In addition, the approach can also be used for the evaluation of additives and fuel blending as measures to improve specific combustion properties. The results show that a much better and clearer picture about the combustion properties of a specific biomass fuel can be provided than by conventional approaches (such as wet chemical analysis or other standardized methods). The results can be used for the preliminary design of plants as well as for evaluation of the applicability of a specific technology for a certain biomass fuel or fuel spectrum. Moreover, they can be applied in combination with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the detailed design and evaluation of furnaces and boilers. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Conference contributions | 2014

Synergies of Wastewater and Microalgae Cultivation

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D, Bochmann G, Drosg B, Schagerl M. Synergies of Wastewater and Microalgae Cultivation, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2014, 26th-28th of February 2014, Wels, Austria.

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Current international research results identify microalgae as a new and promising feedstock for the global energy supply chain. A novel concept to reduce costs and cover the need of water and nutrients is the combination of wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation. In Austria in particular brewery and dairy effluents as well as municipal wastewater would be suitable for algae cultivation. Cultivation systems practical for the use of wastewater are High Rate Algal Ponds (open system, suspended culture), Algal Turf Scrubbers (open system, immobilized culture) and Photobioreactors (closed systems, suspended culture). The cultivation of microalgae in general and the special case of wastewater as nutrient source face a variety of challenges either concerning the accumulation of microalgal cells in wastewater (upstream process) or their removal and processing (downstream process). Taking a look at the whole production chain shows that for effluents of breweries, dairies
and smale-scale municipal wastewater no feasible concept for the combination of microalgae cultivation and wastewater treatment can be designed. A promising production concept for large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants are HRAPs or biofilm production in ATS systems for energetic and material pathways. Various R&D challenges are to overcome to lead to an optimization and further development of technologies for combined wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation in Austria.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2014

Techno-economic study of a heat pump enhanced flue gas heat recovery for biomass boilers

Hebenstreit B, Schnetzinger R, Ohnmacht R, Höftberger E, Lundgren J, Haslinger W, et al. Techno-economic study of a heat pump enhanced flue gas heat recovery for biomass boilers. Biomass Bioenergy. 2014;71:12-22.

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An active condensation system for the heat recovery of biomass boilers is evaluated. The active condensation system utilizes the flue gas enthalpy exiting the boiler by combining a quench and a compression heat pump. The system is modelled by mass and energy balances. This study evaluates the operating costs, primary energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions on an Austrian data basis for four test cases. Two pellet boilers (10kW and 100kW) and two wood chip boilers (100kW and 10MW) are considered. The economic analysis shows a decrease in operating costs between 2% and 13%. Meanwhile the primary energy efficiency is increased by 3-21%. The greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents are calculated to 15.3-27.9kg MWh-1 based on an Austrian electricity mix. The payback time is evaluated on a net present value (NPV) method, showing a payback time of 2-12 years for the 10MW wood chip test case. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Contributions to trade journals | 2014

The Biomass Technology Roadmap of the RHC-Platform: Priorities for high efficient large-scale CHP units

Grammelis P, Goodwin N, Alakangas E, Haslinger W, Karampinis E. The Biomass Technology Roadmap of the RHC-Platform: Priorities for high efficient large-scale CHP units. VGB PowerTech. 2014;6:74-79.

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Die europäische Technologie-Plattform für Heizen und Kühlen mit erneuerbaren Energien (RHC-Plattform, www.rhc-platform.org) fördert die Forschung und Entwicklung bei der Wärme- und Kälteproduktion aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen in der EU. Die verschiedenen Endanwendungen (Strom und/oder Bereitstellung von Wärme, Kraftstoff) setzen eine Verdoppelung der Biomassenutzung voraus, um die 20-20-20-Ziele der EU zu erreichen. Neue Ressourcen müssen erschlossen, mobilisiert und der Wirkungsgrad der Umwandlungsprozesse gesteigert werden. In Biomasse-Heizkraftwerken sowie Heizwerken werden derzeit mehr als ein Drittel des gesamten Biomasseaufkommens eingesetzt. Dies führt zu neuen, gemeinsamen Herausforderungen für den Strom- und Wärmesektor.
Das Biomasse-Panel der RHC-Plattform hat Schwerpunkte für Forschung und Entwicklung definiert, um bestimmte Kennzahlen für Biomassewertschöpfungsketten zu erreichen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Prioritäten für die Bestandteile der Wertschöpfungsketten vor, die relevant für den Strombereich sind:
a) nachhaltige und kosten-effiziente Biomasseversorgungsketten, b) thermisch behandelte Biomasse-Brennstoffe und c) hoch-effiziente KWK-Anlagen.
Herausforderungen für den Anlagenbetrieb sind Brennstoffflexibilität, Wirkungsgraderhöhung über den vollen Lastbereich, Betrieb mit variablen Brennstoffen und Qualitäten bei variablen Lastzuständen, höhere Betriebsparameter für Dampf und andere Wärmeträger, höhere Anlagenverfügbarkeit, Reduktion von unerwünschten gas- und partikelförmigen Emissionen und schließlich die Ascheverwertung.
 


Conference contributions | 2014

Thermal simulation of a pellet boiler and a heat storage tank for future control strategies

Schnetzinger R, Musumarra I, Hebenstreit B, Lichtenegger K, Schwarz M, Höftberger E. Thermal simulation of a pellet boiler and a heat storage tank for future control strategies, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2014

Thermo-chemical pre-treatment of brewers' spent grains

Gorter S, Rachbauer L, Scheidl S, Gabauer W, Ortner M, Bochmann G. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment of brewers' spent grains, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Torrefied pellets – influence of torrefaction on pellet characteristics and combustion behaviour

Pointner C, Schmutzer-Roseneder I, Feldmeier S, Kristöfel C, Ehrig R, Schwabl M, Strasser C, Wörgetter M. Torrefied pellets – influence of torrefaction on pellet characteristics and combustion behavior, 4th Central European Biomass Conference 2014, 15th-18th of January 2014, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Towards a Stochastic Cellular Automata Model of Log Wood Combustion

Lichtenegger K, Schappacher W, Hebenstreit B, Schmidl C, Höftberger E. Towards a Stochastic Cellular Automata Model of Log Wood Combustion. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2014:490:102015. (peer reviewed)

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Describing the combustion of log wood and others solid fuels with complex geometry, considerable water content and often heterogenous struture is a nontrivial task. Stochastic Cellular Automata models offer a promising approach for modelling such processes. Combustion models of this type exhibit several similarities to the well-known forest fire models, but there are also significant differences between those two types of models. These differences call for a detailed analysis and the development of supplementary modeling approaches. In this
article we define a qualitative two-dimensional model of burning log wood, discuss the most important differences to classical forest fire models and present some preliminary results.


Conference contributions | 2014

Transport Biofuels in Europe - A Vision for 2030

Wörgetter M. Transport Biofuels in Europe - A Vision for 2030, Fuels of the Future 2014, 20th-21st of January 2014, Berlin, Germany.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Wood Gas Processing To Generate Pure Hydrogen Suitable for PEM Fuel Cells

Fail S, Diaz N, Benedikt F, Kraussler M, Hinteregger J, Bosch K, et al. Wood gas processing to generate pure hydrogen suitable for PEM fuel cells. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering. 2014;2(12):2690-8.

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A test campaign was carried out to generate renewable hydrogen based on wood gas derived from the commercial biomass steam gasification plant in Oberwart, Austria. The implemented process consisted of four operation units: (I) catalyzed water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, (II) gas drying and cleaning in a wet scrubber, (III) hydrogen purification by pressure swing adsorption, and (IV) use of the generated biohydrogen (BioH2) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. For almost 250 h, a reliable and continuous operation was achieved. A total of 560 (Ln dry basis (db))/h of wood gas were extracted to produce 280 (Ln db)/h of BioH2 with a purity of 99.97 vol %db. The catalyzed WGS reaction enabled a hydrogen recovery of 128% (nBioH2)/(nH2,wood gas) over the whole process chain. An extensive chemical analysis of the main gas components and trace components (sulfur, CxHy, and ammonia) was carried out. No PEM fuel cell poisons were measured in the generated BioH2. The only detectable impurities in the product were 0.02 vol %db of O2 and 0.01 vol %db of N2. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

A new innovative CFD-based optimisation method for biomass combustion plants

Shiehnejadhesar A, Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. A new innovative CFD-based optimisation method for biomass combustion plants. Biomass Bioenergy. 2013;53:48-53.

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In this paper, the work on the development and test of a basic design tool for the automatic performance of parameter studies for the optimisation of biomass combustion plants is presented. The model consists of parameterisation and optimisation routines linked with an in-house developed empirical packed bed combustion model as well as gas phase CFD models especially adapted for biomass grate furnaces. To test and verify the routine developed, it has been applied to the optimisation of a 180 kWth pilot-scale grate furnace. The main focus was on the minimisation of CO emissions and the pressure loss by changing the diameter and angle of the secondary air nozzles. The simulation results show that the time of the optimisation process can be reduced considerably by the automatic routine developed and the evaluation of several independent design parameters is possible. This new procedure forms an important milestone towards automatic CFD-based furnace and boiler optimisations in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation based on tests with a specially designed lab-reactor

Brunner T, Biedermann F, Kanzian W, Evic N, Obernberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterization based on tests with a specially designed lab-scale reactor. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(10):5691-8.

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To examine relevant combustion characteristics of biomass fuels in grate combustion systems, a specially designed lab-scale reactor was developed. On the basis of tests performed with this reactor, information regarding the biomass decomposition behavior, the release of NOx precursor species, the release of ash-forming elements, and first indications concerning ash melting can be evaluated. Within the scope of several projects, the lab-scale reactor system as well as the subsequent evaluation routines have been optimized and tests with a considerable number of different biomass fuels have been performed. These tests comprised a wide variation of different fuels, including conventional wood fuels (beech, spruce, and softwood pellets), bark, wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) (poplar and willow), waste wood, torrefied softwood, agricultural biomass (straw, Miscanthus, maize cobs, and grass pellets), and peat and sewage sludge. The results from the lab-scale reactor tests show that the thermal decomposition behavior and the combustion behavior of different biomass fuels vary considerably. With regard to NOx precursors (NHx, HCN, NO, N2O, and NO2), NH3 and, for chemically untreated wood fuels, also HCN represent the dominant nitrogen species. The conversion rate from N in the fuel to N in NOx precursors varies between 20 and 95% depending upon the fuel and generally decreases with an increasing N content of the fuel. These results gained from the lab-scale reactor tests can be used to derive NOx precursor release models for subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) NOx post-processing. The release of ash-forming vapors also considerably depends upon the fuel used. In general, more than 91% of Cl, more than 71% of S, 1-51% of K, and 1-50% of Na are released to the gas phase. From these data, the potential for aerosol emissions can be estimated, which varies between 18 mg/Nm3 (softwood pellets) and 320 mg/Nm3 (straw) (dry flue gas at 13% O2). Moreover, these results also provide first indications regarding the deposit formation risks associated with a certain biomass fuel. In addition, a good correlation between visually determined ash sintering tendencies and the sintering temperatures of the different fuels (according to ÖNORM CEN/TS 15370-1) could be observed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Conference contributions | 2013

An environmental impact assessment of Romanian wood pellets delivered to Austrian households and converted into heat

Maderthaner E, Ehrig R. An environmental impact assessment of Romanian wood pellets delivered to Austrian households and converted into heat, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

An Experimental Approach for the Production of Pure Hydrogen Based on Wood Gasification

Fail S, Diaz N, Konlechner D, Hackel M, Sanders E, Rauch R, Harasek M, Bosch K, Schwenninger F, Zapletal P, Schee Z, Hofbauer H. An Experimental Approach for the Production of Pure Hydrogen Based on Wood Gasification, International Conference on Polygeneration Strategies (ICPS13) 2013, 3th-5th of September 2013, Vienna, Austria. p 109-117. (peer reviewed)

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Other Presentations | 2013

Analyse und Optimierung der Verfügbarkeit vom BHKW Güssing

Tripolt, M. Analyse und Optimierung der Verfügbarkeit vom BHKW Güssing, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Applicability and slag formation survey of different biomass fuel qualities in small scale combustion – a Substudy in the EU FP7-SME project AshMelT

Schwabl M, Feldmeier S, Nagelhofer K, Wopienka E, Haslinger W. Applicability and slag formation survey of different biomass fuel qualities in small scale combustion – a Substudy in the EU FP7-SME project AshMelT, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1156-1159.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Application of novel and advanced fuel characterization tools for the combustion related characterization of different wood/Kaolin and straw/Kaolin mixtures

Sommersacher P, Brunner T, Obernberger I, Kienzl N, Kanzian W. Application of novel and advanced fuel characterization tools for the combustion related characterization of different wood/kaolin and straw/kaolin mixtures. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(9):5192-206.

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The increased demand for energy from biomass enforces the utilization of new biomass fuels (e.g., energy crops, short-rotation coppices, as well as wastes and residues from agriculture and the food industry). Compared to conventional wood fuels, these new biomass fuels usually show considerably higher ash contents and lower ash sintering temperatures, which leads to increased problems concerning slagging, ash deposit formation, and particulate matter emissions. One possibility to combat these problematic behaviors is the application of fuel additives such as kaolin. In contrast to the usual approach for the application of additives based on an experimental determination of an appropriate additive ratio, this study applies novel and advanced fuel characterization tools for the characterization of biomass/kaolin mixtures. In the first step the pure biomass fuels (softwood from spruce and straw) and the additive were chemically analyzed. On the basis of the analysis theoretical mixing calculations of promising kaolin ratios were conducted. These theoretical mixtures were evaluated with fuel indexes and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TEC). Fuel indexes provide the first information regarding high temperature corrosion (2S/Cl) and ash melting tendency (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg + Al). TEC can be used for a qualitative prediction of the release of volatile and semivolatile elements (K, Na, S, Cl, Zn, Pb) and the ash melting behavior. Moreover, selected mixtures of spruce and straw with kaolin were prepared for an evaluation and validation of the release behavior of volatile and semivolatile ash forming elements with lab-scale reactor experiments. The validation of the ash melting behavior was conducted by applying the standard ash melting test. It could be shown that the new approach to apply novel and advanced fuel characterization tools to determine the optimum kaolin ratio for a certain biomass fuel works well and thus opens a new and targeted method for additive evaluation and application. In addition, it helps to significantly reduce time-consuming and expensive testing campaigns. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Conference contributions | 2013

AshMelT – Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets

Feldmeier S, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Wopienka E. AshMelT – Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets, European Pellets Conference 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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