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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Behavior of inorganic matter in a dual fluidized steam gasification plant

Kirnbauer F, Koch M, Koch R, Aichernig C, Hofbauer H. Behavior of inorganic matter in a dual fluidized steam gasification plant. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(6):3316-31.

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Ash components of biomass fuels can cause fouling, slagging, and bed material agglomeration during thermal utilization in fluidized bed combustion and gasification plants. The influence of ash components on these problems in dual fluidized bed biomass gasification plants is investigated in an industrial scale plant in Güssing, Austria. Samples of fouling are analyzed, and the results are evaluated. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence analysis and thermal analyses such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Mass balances of inorganic matter are presented, evaluating different loop configurations. The analyses showed high potassium contents compared to the fuel ash composition in fouling of up to 23% by weight. The potassium content of fly ash with a particle size smaller than 200 μm is half that of coarse fly ash with a particle size larger than 200 μm. The thermal analyses showed a large difference between samples of inorganic streams such as fly ash or fly char and fouling. Different fractions of fly ash samples (particle fraction smaller than 200 μm and particle fraction larger than 200 μm) showed similar thermal behavior: endothermic weight losses at around 400 C and around 720-820 C caused by decomposition of carbonates. The composition of inorganic matters of fly ash and fly char is similar. The elemental composition of deposits at the cyclone wall and the first heat exchanger in the flue gas path showed high potassium contents up to 23.6%. While samples of fly ash and fly char did not show significant melting in their thermal behavior, melting could be detected with fouling at temperatures higher than 1000 C. Mass balances of inorganic matter showed a flow of potassium oxide from the combustion reactor to the gasification reactor, which leads to unexpected high potassium concentrations in the fly char. A reduction of ash loops reduces the amount of potassium that is transferred from the combustion reactor to the gasification reactor. Recommendations are made for the operation of dual fluidized bed gasification plants in terms of ash handling to reduce tendencies for fouling, slagging, and bed material agglomeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Conference contributions | 2013

Bioenergie aus Mikroalgen - Forschung und Vernetzung im Kompetenzzentrum BIOENERGY 2020+

Sonnleitner A. Vernetzungsworkshop "Algen als biogene Ressource - Akteure in Österreich", Bioenergie aus Mikroalgen - Forschung und Vernetzung im Kompetenzzentrum BIOENERGY 2020+, 6th of November, Wieselburg-Land, Austria, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Bioenergielösungen im Neubau

Schmidl C, Moser W, Reichert G. Bioenergielösungen im Neubau, Veranstaltung des Biomasseverbandes "Erneuerbare Wärme-Schlüssel zur Energiewende" 2013, 8th of May 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Bioenergy and Microalgae - Research and networking activities at the Austrian competence centre BIOENERGY 2020+ with a special focus on Algae energy

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D, Wörgetter M. J –EraCenter, Workshop “Bioenergy and Microalgae - Research and networking activities at the Austrian competence centre BIOENERGY 2020+ with a special focus on Algae energy”, 21st of November, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biofuels in Austria – yesterday, today and tomorrow

Wörgetter M, Bacovsky D. Biofuels in Austria – yesterday, today and tomorrow, 20th International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels (ISAF) 2013, 25th-27th of March 2013, Cape Town, South Africa.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biofuels RD&D in BIOENERGY 2020+

Bacovsky D. Biofuels RD&D in BIOENERGY 2020+, Eco-Mobility Conference 2013, 3rd-4th of October 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biomass Price Volatility - Analysis of the Historic Biomass and Energy Price volatility in the Austrian Market

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Morawetz U, Schmidt J, Schmid E. Biomass Price Volatility - Analysis of the Historic Biomass and Energy Price volatility in the Austrian Market, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1721-1727.

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Several energy and agricultural commodities have experienced higher price volatility in recent years. Hence, the interest in food and energy security issues as well as price volatility has increased, particularly since the rise in food and energy commodity prices in 2007/2008. Volatility is associated with risk since higher price volatility leads to additional costs that are often shared and transmitted along the supply chain to the final consumers. Volatility of woody biomass prices is also possibly higher due to increased market dynamics and integration as well as renewable energy policy intervention. We compute historic price volatility using the standard deviation of log returns as well as univariate GARCH models and empirically analyze whether or not price volatility of woody biomass commodities has increased in recent years. We also compare the historic price volatility of woody biomass to the price volatility of agricultural commodities and fossil fuels. Results indicate that the price volatility of some woody biomass commodities has increased, but it is still lower than of agricultural biomass and fossil fuels.


Other Presentations | 2013

Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in an AD process?

Ortner M, Rachbauer L, Somitsch W, Fuchs W. Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in an AD process? Bioenergy Conference 2013, 4th-6th of September 2013, Jyväskylä, Finnland.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Characterisation of Jatropha mahafalensis oil

Sonnleitner A. Characterisation of Jatropha mahafalensis oil, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Characterization of modern biomass heating and domestic hot water supply systems

Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Schwarz M, Schwabl M, Golicza L, Carlon E, Wopienka E, Verma V. Characterization of modern biomass heating and domestic hot water supply systems, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Co-firing of imported wood pellets - an option to efficiently save CO2 emissions in Europe?

Ehrig R, Behrendt F. Co-firing of imported wood pellets - An option to efficiently save CO2 emissions in Europe? Energy Policy. 2013;59:283-300.

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In this paper the energy and carbon footprints of pellet imports from Australia, West Canada, and Russia for co-firing in Europe are investigated. Their ecologic and economic performances are proven by applying the Belgian and UK co-firing subsidy systems, which require dedicated sustainability evaluations. Based on the modelling of different subsidy schemes and price scenarios, the present paper identifies favourable conditions for the use of biomass co-firing in Germany and Austria, which currently do not have dedicated co-firing incentives. The present paper shows that under present conditions, co-firing has a narrow financial gap to coal with -3 to 4€ Cent/kWhel and has low CO2 mitigation costs compared to other renewables. Moreover, it is shown that co-firing is one of the most cost-attractive options to reach the EU-2020 targets. For policy makers, the support of co-firing is found to be very efficient in terms of cost-benefit ratio. It is proven that the co-firing subsidy schemes might direct supply chain decisions towards options with low energy and carbon impacts. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
 


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: Possible interactions of fuels

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: Possible interactions of fuels. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(6):3261-73.

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Co-gasification of biomass and plastics was investigated in a 100 kW dual fluidized-bed pilot plant using four types of plastic material of different origins and soft wood pellets. The proportion of plastics was varied within a broad range to assess the interaction of the materials. The product gas composition was considerably influenced by co-gasification, whereas the changes were nonlinear. More CO and CO2 were measured in the product gas from co-gasification than would be expected from linear interpolation of mono-gasification of the materials. Less CH4 and C2H 4 were formed, and the tar content in the product gas was considerably lower than presumed. With the generation of more product gas than expected, co-gasification of wood and plastic materials also had other beneficial effects. Because of the fuel mixtures, more radicals of different types were available that interacted with each other and with the fluidization steam, enhancing the reforming reactions. Wood char had a positive effect on polymer decomposition, steam reforming, and tar reduction. As a result of the more active splash zone during co-gasification of wood and plastics, contact between gas and bed material was enhanced, which is crucial for catalytic tar removal. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Conversion of fuel nitrogen in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Conversion of fuel nitrogen in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel. 2013;106:793-801.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel. 2013;107:787-799.

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Steam gasification of plastic materials was studied in a dual fluidized bed gasification pilot plant (DFB). Several types of plastics, which are available in large amounts in waste streams, were investigated: PE, PP, and mixtures of PE + PS, PE + PET and PE + PP. It was found that the product gas from PE was rich in CH4 and C2H4 and had a LCV of 25 MJ/N m 3. About 22% of PE was converted to the monomer C2H4. Different mixtures of PE with other polymers showed, that the concentrations of CH4 and C2H4increased with an increasing proportion of PE and that they were the main decomposition products of PE. The product gas from pure PP contained more CH4 and less C2H4compared to the product gas from PE. The polymer mixtures behaved differently from the pure substances. Significantly more H2 and CO were generated from PE + PP and PE + PS. It can be assumed that the decomposition products of the two polymers in the mixture interacted strongly and alternately influenced the gasification process. More water was converted, so the gas production increased. The reforming reactions were enhanced and yielded H2 and CO at the expense of CH4 and C2H4. The mixture of PE + PET differed from the other polymers because of the high oxygen content of PET. Thus, 28% of CO2 were measured in the product gas. By contrast, CO2 was in the range of 8%, when oxygen-free polymers were gasified and CO2 was only produced from reactions with steam. Gasification of polymers resulted in significantly high tar loads in the product gas in the range of 100 g/N m 3. The GCMS analysis of tars showed that tars from polymers mainly consisted of PAH and aro-matics. Naphthalene was the most important tar compound. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel. 2013;107:787-99.

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Steam gasification of plastic materials was studied in a dual fluidized bed gasification pilot plant (DFB). Several types of plastics, which are available in large amounts in waste streams, were investigated: PE, PP, and mixtures of PE + PS, PE + PET and PE + PP. It was found that the product gas from PE was rich in CH4 and C2H4 and had a LCV of 25 MJ/N m 3. About 22% of PE was converted to the monomer C2H4. Different mixtures of PE with other polymers showed, that the concentrations of CH4 and C2H4 increased with an increasing proportion of PE and that they were the main decomposition products of PE. The product gas from pure PP contained more CH4 and less C2H4 compared to the product gas from PE. The polymer mixtures behaved differently from the pure substances. Significantly more H2 and CO were generated from PE + PP and PE + PS. It can be assumed that the decomposition products of the two polymers in the mixture interacted strongly and alternately influenced the gasification process. More water was converted, so the gas production increased. The reforming reactions were enhanced and yielded H2 and CO at the expense of CH4 and C2H4. The mixture of PE + PET differed from the other polymers because of the high oxygen content of PET. Thus, 28% of CO were measured in the product gas. By contrast, CO2 was in the range of 8%, when oxygen-free polymers were gasified and CO2 was only produced from reactions with steam. Gasification of polymers resulted in significantly high tar loads in the product gas in the range of 100 g/N m 3. The GCMS analysis of tars showed that tars from polymers mainly consisted of PAH and aro-matics. Naphthalene was the most important tar compound. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Conference contributions | 2013

Correlation between CO OFF-gassing and Linoleic fatty Acid content of wood Chips and Pellets

Emhofer W, Pöllinger-Zierler B, Siegmund B, Haslinger W, Leitner E. Correlation between CO OFF-gassing and Linoleic fatty Acid content of wood Chips and Pellets, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1362-1364.

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During storage of wood pellets emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be detected. These off-gases have been reported to originate from autooxidation reactions of woods own fatty acids, but data on CO formation rates based on fatty acid content is still scarce. In this paper data on the formation rates of CO from oxidation of pure linoleic acid are presented and compared to CO formation rates measured from spruce shavings, spruce sawdust and pellets made from the respective raw materials. To determine whether linoleic acid content is a realistic prediction tool for CO formation the fatty acid contents of the spruce materials have been determined and a comparison of predicted CO formation rates (based on linoleic acid content) to actually measured CO formation rates has been made. The results show that, albeit the fact that the determination of linoleic acid content is not the sole determining factor for an accurate prediction of CO formation rates, it is a helpful indicator in estimating a critical maximum rate of CO formation. The actual formation rates for CO, however, are typically lower than the predicted values and depend to a large extent on the history of the material and whether or not it has been activated. Activation includes treatments such as pelletizing, drying and/or milling.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2013

Development of a biomass heating device for low energy and passive houses

Schwabl M, Schwarz M, Figl F, Carvalho L, Staudinger M, Kalb W, et al. Development of a biomass heating device for low energy and passive houses. Management of Environmental Quality. 2013;24(5):652-66.

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urpose: Decreasing energy demand due to improved building standards requires the development of new biomass combustion technologies to be able to provide individual biomass heating solutions. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, the development of a pellet water heating stove with minimal emission at high thermal efficiency. Design/methodology/approach: The single components of a 10 kW water heating pellet stove are analysed and partly redesigned considering the latest scientific findings and experimental know-how in combustion engineering. The outcome of this development is a 12 kW prototype which is subsequently down-scaled to a 6 kW prototype. Finally, the results of the development are evaluated by testing of an accredited institute. Findings: Based on an existing pellet water heating stove, the total excess air ratio was reduced, a strict air staging was implemented and the fuel supply was homogenized. All three measures improved the operating performance regarding emissions and thermal efficiency. The evaluation of the development process showed that the CO emissions are reduced by over 90 per cent during full load and by 30-60 per cent during minimum load conditions. Emissions of particulate matter are reduced by 70 per cent and the thermal efficiency increased to 95 per cent. Originality/value: The result represents a new state of technology in this sector for minimal emissions and maximal thermal efficiency, which surpasses the directives of the Eco label "UZ37" in Austria and "Blauer Engel" in Germany, which are amongst the most stringent performance requirements in the European Union. Hence this design possesses a high potential as heating solution for low and passive energy houses. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Conference contributions | 2013

Development of a test gas generator for biomass gasification derived process gas - a test methodology for quality insurance and development

Martini S, Kleinhappl M. Development of a test gas generator for biomass gasification derived process gas - a test methodology for quality insurance and development, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 775-777.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Dual fluidized bed gasification: operational experiences and future developments

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Gasification Technologies: Delivering the Potential, Workshop “Dual fluidized bed gasification: Operational experiences and future Developments”, 23rd of October, Newcastle, England, 2013.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Dynamic modelling of hydronic heating systems supplied by a biomass boiler for residential application: solutions for the optimization of the control strategy

Rimoldi, M. Dynamic modelling of hydronic heating systems supplied by a biomass boiler for residential application: solutions for the optimization of the control strategy, Master Thesis, Polytechnic University of Milan, Milan, Italy, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Economic Comparison of Torrefaction-Based and Conventional Pellet Production-to-End-Use Chains

Ehrig R, et al. Economic Comparison of Torrefaction-Based and Conventional Pellet Production-to-End-Use Chains, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1342-1349.

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Biomass upgrading through torrefaction is expected to relevantly reduce biomass trade costs and thus energy costs for the end-user. In this framework, the present work aims at defining crucial technical and cost parameters for the production, fuel properties, supply and end-use of torrefied pellets. The findings are used to compare four real-case wood pellet with corresponding torrefied pellet supply chains. Input data are derived from laboratory fuel, pelletising and storage experiments with torrefied biomass provided from European producers, cost estimations based on experience from related technology engineering and set-up as well as from expert consultations. This allows a step-by-step comparison of cost advantages and additional expenses from pretreatment to end-user. As a result, torrefied pellets turn out to be a certain alternative for wood pellets. The cost comparison demonstrates that the production of torrefied pellets is still much more cost-intensive, but can be partly compensated by reduced transportation costs. At the end-user, heat production in small-scale pellet boilers is technically feasible, but with slightly higher costs. Co-firing torrefied pellets in large-scale coal plants can be cost-competitive to industrial wood pellets, when no additional retrofit and operation and maintenance costs incur.


Contributions at other events | 2013

Einfluss der thermo-chemischen Vorbehandlung von Biertrebern auf die anaerobe Fermentation

Bochmann, G. Einfluss der thermo-chemischen Vorbehandlung von Biertrebern auf die anaerobe Fermentation, Ph.D. Thesis, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Gegenstand der Arbeit ist der thermische und thermo-chemische Aufschluss von Biertrebern. Dabei werden die Prozessbedingungen wie Chemikalien, Konzentration, Aufschlusstemperatur sowie Aufschlussdauer und deren Einfluss auf die Biogasgewinnung untersucht. Der Nachweis erfolgt entlang den einzelnen Prozessstufen Hydrolyse, Acidogenese und Methanogenese. Die Prozessparameter der Aufschlüsse haben sowohl einen starken Einfluss auf die Hydrolyse der Lignozellulose als auch auf die Bildung thermischer Nebenprodukte. Diese Zwischenprodukte beeinflussen unter anderem den Schritt der Acidogenese stark. Wohingegen die Endprodukte, Melanoidine, anaerob kaum abbaubar sind und damit die Biogasausbeute reduzieren. Die höchsten Methanerträge werden mit einer Behandlungstemperatur von 140 °C erreicht. Unterschiedlich sind dabei die Höhe der zusätzlichen Gaserträge von 28 Vol.-% mit H2O sowie rund 50 Vol.-% mit Lauge und 60 Vol.-% mit Säure. In semi-kontinuierlich beschickten Reaktoren konnten mit unbehandelten Trebern Erträge von 410 m³N CH4/Mg oTS realisiert werden. Thermisch aufgeschlossene Treber ergeben Erträge von 468 m³N CH4/Mg oTS (+14 %). Durch die Zugabe von Lauge zum thermischen Aufschluss kann der Methanertrag auf 558 m³N/Mg oTS (+36 %) gesteigert werden. Auf Grund der Prozessinstabilitäten war der acido-thermisch aufgeschlossene Treber nicht auswertbar. Der Mehrertrag in den Aufschlüssen ist auf die verbesserte Verwertung der Zellulose und Hemizellulose zurückzuführen. Durch die Vorbehandlung der Biertreber gelingt es, die Treberverwertung wirtschaftlicher zu gestalten. Nach der Vergütung im Österreichischen Ökostromgesetz 2012 können Erträge von bis 13 €/Mg FM Treber erreicht werden. Dies ist insbesondere durch eine thermo-chemischen Vorbehandlung möglich


Conference contributions | 2013

Emissions from Wood Pellets During Storage Referring to the Extractive Content

Schmutzer-Rosendeder I, Emhofer W, Haslinger W. Emissions from Wood Pellets During Storage Referring to the Extractive Content, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Wood pellets and wood raw materials such as chips or sawdust emit hazardous gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during processing and storage. Due to the high toxicity of CO it is necessary to identify the release mechanisms for CO and VOCs. Several studies show that organic extractives decrease during storage as well as the emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between the organic extractive content and the release of CO and VOCs. Sawdust and pellets from Norway spruce (Picea abies), European larch (Larix decidua) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) were examined. Additionally, five different pellet samples from Austrian pellet producers were investigated. Soxhlet extraction with acetone was used to extract the organic content. The concentration of CO and VOCs was measured from stored wood materials and pellets in sealed glass flasks. The highest (3,41 mg CO/kg sample dm/d) and the lowest (0,02 mg CO/kg sample dm/d) release of CO were reported with freshly produced pine pellets and a spruce pellets sample from an Austrian do-it-yourself store, respectively. The results showed that the pelletizing process reduced the content of organic extractives. The emissions of pine samples concerning CO and VOCs were higher than of the spruce and larch samples. Moreover, the organic extractive content also decreased in that order. However, a direct correlation between organic extractive content and released quantities of emissions could not be established.


Other Presentations | 2013

Energy independent food processing industry -- realization of an innovative waste & energy management concept

Ortner M, Pröll T, Schumergruber A, Fuchs W. Energy independent food processing industry - realization of an innovative waste & energy management concept, Beijing International Environmental Technology Conference 2013, 21st-23rd of October 2013, Beijing, China.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Enhanced flue gas condensation technology: analysis of a 10MW demonstration plant

Hebenstreit B, Höftberger E, Ohnmacht R, Lundgren J, Toffolo A. Enhanced flue gas condensation technology: analysis of a 10MW demonstration plant, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1614-1617.

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