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Other publication | 2016

Influence of leak tightness and heat storage capacity of biomass room heating appliances on thermal efficiency

Sturmlechner R, Reichert G, Stressler H, Aigenbauer S, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Haslinger W. Influence of leak tightness and heat storage capacity of biomass room heating appliances on thermal efficiency. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis

Sauciuc A, Abosteif Z, Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Schaub G, Dumitrescu L. Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Biomass Conversion. 2012;2(3):253-263.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Influence of pellet length on performance of pellet room heaters under real life operation conditions

Wöhler M, Jaeger D, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Pelz SK. Influence of pellet length on performance of pellet room heaters under real life operation conditions. Renewable Energy. 1 May 2017;105: 66-75.

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Wood pellet combustion for heating is increasing in importance in Europe. However, the most commonly used heating appliances such as wood pellet stoves are responsible for emissions which could negatively affect human health. The emissions quality of pellet stoves is influenced by pellet properties and combustion phase characteristics. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of pellet length on the performance of pellets stoves under real life operation conditions. Three softwood pellet samples were produced, differing only in length. Combustion tests with two different types of pellet stoves were performed in steady and non-steady combustion phases. Gaseous and particulate emissions as well as fuel mass flow were measured. Results show a reduced fuel mass flow (up to 36%) into the combustion chamber for long pellets compared to short pellets. The results of the combustion tests show a considerable influence of pellet length on the performance of both pellet stoves. For example, carbon monoxide emissions and particulate emissions of one stove in nominal load operation increased for long pellets compared to short pellets from 185 mg/m3 to 882 mg/m3, and from 27 mg/m3 to 37 mg/m3 respectively. Results also show a considerable influence of the combustion phase on the emissions level.


Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) 2012, 3rd-6th of June 2012, Naples, Italy. p 979-804. (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove

Reichert G. Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove, Conference ”Dust measuring procedures for small biomass furnaces” 2012, 7th of November 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference Papers | 2017

Influence of sulfur components on the catalytic mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam

Binder, M., Rauch, R., Koch, M., Summers, M., Aichernig, C., and Hofbauer, H.: Influence of sulfur components on the catalytic mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam. In: Proceedings of the 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 12 - 15 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Other publication | 2013

Innovative Energietechnologien in Österreich - Marktentwicklung 2013

Biermayr P, Eberl M, Enigl M, Rechner H, Kristöfel C, Leonhartsberger K, Maringer F, Moidl S, Strasser C, Weiss W, Wörgetter M. Innovative Energietechnologien in Österreich – Marktentwicklung. Berichte aus Energie und Umweltforschung. 2013:26.

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Conference Papers | 2017

Innovative flexible grate solutions for future biomass combustion appliances

Feldmeier, S., Wopienka, E., Schwarz, M., Mehrabian Bardar, R.: Innovative flexible grate solutions for future biomass combustion appliances. (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2017, Stockholm).

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The energetic utilization of alternative fuels (short rotation coppice, miscanthus), agricultural by-products (straw, corn cobs) or biomass residues (nut shells, coffee grounds) becomes of increasing interest. Due to variations in fuel properties – and the ash content in particular – biomass fuels considerably influence the conditions in the combustion zone and especially in the fuel bed. Usually, state-of-the-art combustion appliances are optimized for a particular fuel quality and typically approved only for utilization of standardized wood pellets or wood chips. Research activities within the GrateAdvance project focus on fuel flexible grate technologies being capable of adapting conditions in the combustion zone by a systematic and targeted adjustment of grate parameters in order to minimize emissions and slagging problems, thus setting the basis for a new generation of biomass technologies. Moreover, a novel control concept will ensure optimal combustion conditions for any biomass fuel, and specifically adjust to relevant fuel properties.


Conference contributions | 2015

Innovative room heating technologies

Schmidl C. Innovative room heating technologies, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial

Martini S. Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Integrating mitigation and adaptation into development: The case of Jatropha curcas in sub-Saharan Africa

Muys B, Norgrove L, Alamirew T, Birech R, Chirinian E, Delelegn Y, et al. Integrating mitigation and adaptation into development: The case of Jatropha curcas in sub-Saharan Africa. GCB Bioenergy. 2014;6(3):169-71.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification

Rauch R. Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification, International Seminar on Gasification 2012, 18th-19th of October 2012, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2015

Integration of Oxidative Honeycomb Catalysts in Firewood Stoves - Perfomance Analysis, Safety Aspects and Long Term Durability

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W. Integration of Oxidative Honeycomb Catalysts in Firewood Stoves - Perfomance Analysis, Safety Aspects and Long Term Durability, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2010

Integration of Sensor Based Sorting in the Mechanical Treatment of Municipal and Commercial Waste

Brooks L, Ragossnig A, Meirhofer M, Pieber S. Integration of Sensor Based Sorting in the Mechanical Treatment of Municipal and Commercial Waste, Orbit 2010, 29th of June-3rd of July 2010, Heraklion, Crete.

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Due to the Austrian legal framework provided by the landfill ordinance from 1996 which has been fully implemented by January 1st 2009, waste with an organic content higher than 5% TOC (total organic carbon) must not be dumped without prior treatment in order to avoid greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Besides thermal treatment also mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) has been enabled by the regulator as an eligible treatment approach, whereby waste to be dumped must comply with the threshold of 6,600 kJ/kg DM (dry mass) stipulated for the upper caloric value. This is a tough challenge due to the high energy content of plastic, paper, cardboard and wood components which are still contained in the low caloric output fraction of the MBT of municipal and commercial waste as those materials have a much higher upper caloric value. From the resource conservation point of view the utilization of these waste components for energetic purposes is desirable too.
The implementation of the legal framework as one measure battling climate change as well as constantly rising energy prices have caused a change from pure waste management with the intention to reduce the organic content in waste, to the point where high caloric components have become a substitute for fossil fuels in certain sectors of industries (cement industry, pulp & paper industry, steel works, etc). Using waste derived or so-called refuse derived fuel (RDF) demands high purity in order to secure environmental standards as well as product quality and therefore process related requirements have to be met. This can be achieved by 1) qualified selection of the waste streams into the treatment plants and 2) by processing technologies allowing the separation of wanted/unwanted waste components within the plant concept. In cooperation with a regional waste management company, responsible for the treatment and disposal of 82,000 t/a of municipal and commercial waste and operator of a MBT plant as well as a landfill, further processing of a specific output waste stream from the MBT plant was analysed in order to allow an optimized routing of the output streams including the energetic utilization of high caloric components and landfilling of low caloric and inert components. Experiments using the innovative treatment technology of sensor based sorting were conducted with a waste stream characterized by 59 % high caloric components (polymers, paper and cardboard, wood), 8 % other organic components, 27 % inert waste, 3 % metals and 3 % other waste (textiles, fine fraction < 20 mm, hazardous waste). The particle size of that particular waste stream is 20-80 mm. The sorting machine was a NIR (near infrared) multiplex sensor based sorting system with a wavelength of 1,400-1,900 nm in pilot scale. Results showed that by varying the parameters air pressure (bar), scanning speed (Hz), blow out time (ms) and the evaluation of spectra, about 76 % of polymers, 86 % of wood and 96 % of paper and cardboard of the input fractions could be separated from the inorganic waste stream. The remaining components were inert waste (53%), metals (3 %), other waste (textiles, contaminated waste, fine fraction < 20 mm) (3 %), but also dark polymers (12 %), undefined organics (e.g. fruits, vegetables) (9%) and still 20 % of polymers, wood, paper and cardboards. Due to the high portion of organic components and dark polymers in the stream, the threshold of 6,600 kJ/kg DM defined for waste to be landfilled could not be met. Further experiments with a more sensitive sorting system, a spectral imaging technology (wavelength up to 2,500 nm), are planned, supposing that the rejection rate of dark polymers could be increased. Theoretical considerations have shown that in that case the threshold could be met.


Other Presentations | 2012

Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese

Götz, F. Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Integration von Oxidationskatalysatoren in Holzöfen

Reichert G, Schmidl C. Integration von Oxidationskatalysatoren in Holzöfen, 13. Holzenergiesymposium 2014, 12th of September 2014, Zürich, Schweiz. pp 77-92. (peer reviewed)

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Batch-wise operated wood stoves for room heating purposes are popular and widespread in Europe. Beside economic and ecological reasons they are also very important for reaching the European CO2 emission targets. However, since they contribute significantly to harmful gaseous as well as particulate emissions, they have to be optimized towards clear emission reduction in real life operation. Catalysts integrated in wood stoves can significantly contribute to reach this target. The results of this study showed an emission reduction potential of
integrated ceramic and metallic honeycomb catalysts of around 30 % to 99 %. Thereby the highest reduction potential was investigated for CO emissions (reduction rate 75 % to 99 %), followed by reductions of VOC emissions (reduction rate 40 % to 60 %) and reductions of PM emissions of around 30 % to 40 %. Long term tests and safety test series lead to the conclusion that integrated catalysts have to be cleaned regularly in order to prevent blocking and to guarantee optimal reduction performance.


Other Presentations | 2014

Integration von Thermogeneratoren in einen Scheitholzofen zur Eigenstromversorgung der automatischen Luftklappenregelung

Mair, C. Integration von Thermogeneratoren in einen Scheitholzofen zur Eigenstromversorgung der automatischen Luftklappenregelung, Diploma Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2014.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Intelligent Heat Networks: First Results of an Energy-Information-Cost-Model

Lichtenegger K, Hoeftberger E, Schmidl C, Woess D, Proell T, Halmdienst C. Intelligent Heat Networks: First Results of an Energy-Information-Cost-Model. Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. September 2017;11: 1-12.

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Integrating additional renewable heat sources into district heating networks can have several beneficial effects, but it also requires more sophisticated control strategies than supply by only one central plant. In this article, we study the integration of prosumers (i.e. buildings which have both the capacity to produce and the need to consume energy, here heat) into heat distribution grids.

This study is performed with a simplified model, based on energy and information flows. The prosumers can act autonomously, based on a price communicated by the central heat plant. This price is determined based on the benefit for the network by additional heat feed-in and is regularly updated. This leads to an interlocking of a physical/technical and an economic feedback loop. The control parameters are optimized by using a stochastic optimization algorithm, based on simulation runs for one typical week in winter, spring and summer.

We compare the results with standard setups (heat network with only consumers, central heat generation and additional heat-producing building disconnected from the grid) and obtain an improvement concerning fuel consumption in most and concerning emissions in many situations. While economic benefits are achieved in most scenarios, it is a non-trivial task to construct a market model that distributes these benefits in a fair way between the central heat plant and the prosumers.


Scientific Journals | 2019

Interrelation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Sensory Properties of Alternative and Torrefied Wood Pellets

Poellinger-Zierler B, Sedlmayer I, Reinisch C, Hofbauer H, Schmidl C, Kolb LP, Wopienka E, Leitner E, Siegmund B. Interrelation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Sensory Properties of Alternative and Torrefied Wood Pellets. energy & fuels 2019.33:5270-5281.

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The increasing demand for wood pellets on the market, which is caused by their excellent combustion properties, inspires the production as well as the utilization of alternative biomass pellets as fuel. However, the emission of volatile organic compounds gives pellet materials a distinct odor or off-odor, which is directly perceived by the end user. Thus, there is an urgent need for knowledge about the emitted volatile organic compounds and their potential formation pathways as well as their contributions to odor properties of the pellets. In this study, pellets made of biomass energy crops (i.e., straw or miscanthus), byproducts from the food industry (i.e., rapeseed, grapevine, or DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles from beer production)), or eucalyptus, as well as torrefied pinewood and torrefied sprucewood were investigated with respect to the emitted volatile compounds and their possible impact on the pellet odor. Headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to enrich, separate, and identify the compounds. Techniques used in sensory science were applied to obtain information about the odor properties of the samples. A total of 59 volatile compounds (acids, aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, terpenes, heterocyclic compounds, and phenolic compounds) were identified with different compound ratios in the investigated materials. The use of multivariate statistical data analysis provided deep insight into product–compound interrelation. For pellets produced from bioenergy crops, as well as from byproducts from the food industry, the sensory properties of the pellets reflected the odor properties of the raw material. With respect to the volatiles from torrefied pellets, those volatiles that are formed during the torrefaction procedure dominate the odor of the torrefied pellets covering the genuine odor of the utilized wood. The results of this work serve as a substantiated basis for future production of pellets from alternative raw materials.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Investigation of real life operation of biomass room heating appliances – results of a European survey

Wöhler M, Andersen JS, Becker G, Persson H, Reichert G, Schön C, Schmidl C, Jaeger D, Pelz SK. Investigation of real life operation of biomass room heating appliances – results of a European survey. Applied Energy. 1 May 2016;169: 240-249.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Investigation of the corrosion behaviour of 13CrMo4-5 for biomass fired boilers with coupled online corrosion and deposit probe measurements

Gruber T, Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Investigation of the corrosion behaviour of 13CrMo4-5 for biomass fired boilers with coupled online corrosion and deposit probe measurements. Fuel. 2015;144:15-24.

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High-temperature corrosion in biomass fired boilers is still an insufficiently explored phenomenon which causes unscheduled plant shutdowns and hence, economical problems. To investigate the high-temperature corrosion and deposit formation behaviour of superheater tube bundles, online corrosion probe as well as deposit probe measurements have been carried out in a specially designed fixed bed/drop tube reactor in order to simulate a superheater boiler tube under well-controlled conditions. The investigated boiler steel 13CrMo4-5 is commonly used as steel for superheater tube bundles in biomass fired boilers. Forest wood chips and quality sorted waste wood (A1-A2 according to German standards) as relevant fuels have been selected to investigate the influence on the deposit formation and corrosion behaviour. The following influencing parameter variations have been performed during the test campaigns: flue gas temperature between 650 and 880°C, steel temperature between 450 and 550°C and flue gas velocity between 2 and 8 m/s. One focus of the work presented is the detailed investigation of the structure and the chemical composition of the deposits formed as well as of the corrosion products. A further goal of the work presented was the development of an empirical model which can be used within CFD simulations of flow and heat transfer to calculate and evaluate the local corrosion potential of biomass fired plants already at the planning stage. The corrosion probe measurements show a clear dependency on the parameters investigated and the empirical function developed reproduces the measured corrosion behaviour sufficiently accurate. Since the additional calculation time within the CFD simulation is negligible the model represents a helpful tool for plant designers to estimate whether high-temperature corrosion is of relevance for a certain plant or not, when using fuels with similar compositions and the steel 13CrMo4-5. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Conference contributions | 2012

Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier, 3rd International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (iSGA-3) 2012, 16th of October 2012, Vancouver, Canada. (peer reviewed) (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Investigation of User Behavior and Assessment of Typical Operation Mode for Different Types of Firewood Room Heating Appliances in Austria

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Schwabl M, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Investigation of User Behavior and Assessment of Typical Operation Mode for Different Types of Firewood Room Heating Appliances in Austria. Renewable Energy. August 2016;93: 245-254.

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Firewood heaters like firewood roomheaters, tiled stoves and residential biomass cookers are commonly used for supplying the residences with renewable heat. However, these kinds of appliances were identified as responsible for relevant amounts of gaseous CO and OGC as well as particulate emissions causing negative health effects. Beside technological reasons, the operating conditions and the user behavior are essential reasons for increased emissions, especially in real life operation.

Therefore, this study aimed at an investigation and assessment of typical real life user behavior by a survey. Based on the findings effective and customer friendly technological and non-technological optimization approaches for a better and more environmental friendly real life performance were defined.

The results of the study showed principally similar user behavior of all considered types of appliances regarding most relevant operation characteristics, i.e. kind, properties and amount of used fuels, ignition procedure and air valve settings. Most effective non-technological optimization approaches were found for an enhancement of external training arrangements and the development of user friendly manuals that aimed mainly at an improvement of the ignition procedure from bottom–up to top–down ignition method. The use of devices with an automatically controlled combustion air supply was identified as promising technological measure.


Conference Papers | 2016

Investigations of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant by means of computation particle fluid dynamics

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Investigations of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant by means of computation particle fluid dynamics. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements

Brunner T, Fluch J, Obernberger I, Warnecke R. Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;105:154-60.

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In order to gain deeper insights into aerosol formation processes during MSW combustion, test runs with a specially developed high-temperature aerosol measurement and sampling device, the so called high-temperature impactor (HTI), as well as subsequent chemical analyses of the particles sampled have been performed at a real-scale plant. The results show that aerosol formation during MSW combustion is based on the volatilisation of minor amounts of Si-, Ca-, Mg- and Al-compounds followed by nucleation in the fuel bed region which is then followed by excessive condensation of alkaline metal sulphates and especially chlorides in the radiative and the convective boiler sections. At lower flue gas temperatures in the superheater as well as the economiser section also the condensation of heavy metal (Zn, Pb) chlorides provides contributions to aerosol formation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


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