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Other Presentations | 2013

Optimierung des Emissionsverhaltens eines Ofens mittels primären und sekundären Maßnahmen am Beispiel des Scheitholzofens

Rieger, B. Optimierung des Emissionsverhaltens eines Ofens mittels primären und sekundären Maßnahmen am Beispiel des Scheitholzofens, Master Thesis, Fachochschule Technikum Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

Details

The use of biomass in manually charged room heating appliances to cover the domestic heating demand has traditionally been of a high percentage in the European Union. As a result of continued or even increased use of firewood stoves, the enhancement of available stoves is a declared objective of the European Union.
Therefore, an example-optimization of the firewood stove Stûv 16/78-in (available on the European market) was performed in preparation of this paper. There was a primary- and a secondary optimization carried out to quantify the potential of optimization. When optimizing, the gas and particulate emissions was considered. The operating behavior were measured and evaluated by performing combustion experiments on a specially designed test rig.
The primary optimization is divided into five sub-steps. Each Step was quantified by gas analysis. The achieved reduction of particulate emissions was measured before and after the entire primary optimization.
In comparison to the delivery condition it was possible to reduce the CO emissions to one quarter and the particulate emissions from 100 mg / mn³ to 39 mg / mn³ over the course of the primary optimization.
As a secondary optimization, a Catalyst was implemented. The used catalyst is a solid-state catalyst in the modification of a heterogeneous supported catalyst in the shape of honeycomb, which is marketed by Clariant International Ltd. under the name "EnviCat ® Longlife Plus". The catalytically active materials platinum and palladium are used.
After a strictly implemented primary optimizations, a further reduction to half of emissions was achieved by the integration of the catalyst even though a bypass of 20 % had to be integrated to ensure the operating safety.


Peer-reviewed publications | 2013

Overview of Forestry and Wood Fuel Supply Chains in Austria; Investment Costs and Profitability of Biomass Heating Plants in Austria; Business Models from Austria Covering the Entire Wood Heat Supply Chain

Otepka P, Kristöfel C, Strasser C, et al. Guidebook on Local Bioenergy Supply Based on Woody Biomass. Overview of Forestry and Wood Fuel Supply Chains in Austria; Investment Costs and Profitability of Biomass Heating Plants in Austria; Business Models from Austria Covering the Entire Wood Heat Supply Chain. ISBN 978-1-938681-98-1. 2013:2-36;57-112.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Performance improvement of dual fluidized bed gasifiers by temperature reduction: The behavior of tar species in the product gas

Kirnbauer F, Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Performance improvement of dual fluidized bed gasifiers by temperature reduction: The behavior of tar species in the product gas. Fuel. 2013;108:534-42.

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Details

To meet the aims of the worldwide effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, product gas from biomass steam gasification in DFB (dual fluidized bed) gasification plants can play an important role for the production of electricity, fuel for transportation and chemicals. Using a catalytically active bed material, such as olivine, brings advantages concerning tar reduction in the product gas. Experience from industrial scale gasification plants showed that a modification of the olivine occurs during operation due to the interaction of the bed material with ash components from the biomass and additives. This interaction leads to a calcium-rich layer on the bed material particles which influences the gasification properties and reduces tar concentration in the product gas. In this paper, the influence on the gasification performance, product gas composition and tar formation of a reduction of the gasification temperature are studied. A variation of the gasification temperature from 870 °C to 750 °C was carried out in a 100 kW pilot plant. A reduction of the gasification temperature down to 750 °C reduces the concentration of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the product gas and increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and methane. The product gas volume produced per kg of fuel is reduced at lower gasification temperatures but the calorific value of the product gas increases. The volumetric concentration of tars in the product gas increases slightly until 800 °C and nearly doubles when decreasing the gasification temperature to 750 °C. The tars detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) were classified into substance groups and related to the fuel input to the gasifier and showed a decrease in naphthalenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an increase in phenols, aromatic compounds and furans when reducing the gasification temperature. The comparison with results from an earlier study, where the gasification properties of unused fresh olivine were compared with used olivine, underlines the importance of a long retention time of the bed material in the gasifier, ensuring the formation of a calcium-rich layer in the bed material. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels

Carvalho L, Wopienka E, Pointner C, Lundgren J, Verma VK, Haslinger W, et al. Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels. Appl Energy. 2013;104:286-96.

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Details

The increasing demand for woody biomass increases the price of this limited resource, motivating the growing interest in using woody materials of lower quality as well as non-woody biomass fuels for heat production in Europe. The challenges in using non-woody biomass as fuels are related to the variability of the chemical composition and in certain fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of a 15. kW pellet boiler when operated with different pelletized biomass fuels, namely straw (Triticum aestivum), Miscanthus (Miscanthus× giganteus), maize (Zea mays), wheat bran, vineyard pruning (from Vitis vinifera), hay, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wood (from Picea abies) with 5% rye flour. The gaseous and dust emissions as well as the boiler efficiency were investigated and compared with the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5 (final draft of the European standard 303-5). It was found that the boiler control should be improved to better adapt the combustion conditions to the different properties of the agricultural fuels. Additionally, there is a need for a frequent cleaning of the heat exchangers in boilers operated with agricultural fuels to avoid efficiency drops after short term operation. All the agricultural fuels satisfied the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5, with the exception of dust emissions during combustion of straw and Sorghum. Miscanthus and vineyard pruning were the best fuels tested showing comparable emission values to wood combustion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Conference contributions | 2013

Production of mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas using a sulfidized molybdenum catalyst

Weber G, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Production of mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas using a sulfidized molybdenum catalyst, International Conference on Polygeneration Strategies 2013, 3th-5th of September 2013, Vienna, Austria. Weber G, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Production of mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas using a sulfidized molybdenum catalyst, International Conference on Polygeneration Strategies 2013, 3th-5th of September 2013, Vienna, Austria. (peer reviewed)

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Pseudo heterogeneous modeling of catalytic methane steam reforming process in a fixed bed reactor

Sadooghi P, Rauch R. Pseudo heterogeneous modeling of catalytic methane steam reforming process in a fixed bed reactor. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. 2013;11:46-51.

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A mathematical model is developed to simulate synthesis gas production by methane steam reforming process in a fixed bed reactor filled with catalyst particles. Due to the endothermic nature of the reforming reactions heat is supplied into the reactor by means of electrical heating, therefore, the reactor and catalyst particles are exposed to significant axial and radial temperature gradients. A pseudo heterogeneous model is used in order to exactly represent diffusion phenomena inside the reactor tube. Heat and mass transfer equations are coupled with detailed reaction mechanisms and solved for both the flow phase and within the catalyst pellets. The reaction has been investigated from a modeling view point considering the effect of different temperatures ranging from 873 to 1073 (K) on methane conversion and hydrogen yields. The result provides temperature and concentration distribution along the reactor axial and radial coordinates and strong radial temperature gradients particularly close to the entrance of the reactor have been found. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies

Happo MS, Uski O, Jalava PI, Kelz J, Brunner T, Hakulinen P, et al. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies. Sci Total Environ. 2013;443:256-66.

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Details

Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM2.5 emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and fuels are poorly known. In this study, health related toxicological properties of PM1 emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. The PM1 samples were collected by using a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI). The collected samples were weighed and extracted with methanol for chemical and toxicological analyses. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to a single dose of 1, 3, 10 or 15mg/kg of the particulate samples for 4, 18 or 24h. Thereafter, the lungs were lavaged and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lungs of 24h exposed mice were collected for inspection of pulmonary tissue damage. There were substantial differences in the combustion qualities of old and modern technology appliances. Modern technology appliances had the lowest PM1 (mg/MJ) emissions, but they induced the highest inflammatory, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities. In contrast, old technology appliances had clearly the highest PM1 (mg/MJ) emissions, but their effect in the mouse lungs were the lowest. Increased inflammatory activity was associated with ash related components of the emissions, whereas high PAH concentrations were correlating with the smallest detected responses, possibly due to their immunosuppressive effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Other Presentations | 2013

Pylogenetic (SSU) and Fatty Acid Analysis of Several Algal Strains within the Trebouxiophyceae and Implications for Commercial Purposes

Gruber M, Darienko T, Pröschold T, Jirsa F, Schagerl M. Pylogenetic (SSU) and Fatty Acid Analysis of Several Algal Strains within the Trebouxiophyceae and Implications for Commercial Purposes, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Release of gaseous compounds during torrefaction – results from test runs and modelling

Mehrabian R, Stangl S, Scharler R, Obernberger I, Janisch W, Trattner K. Release of gaseous compounds during torrefaction – results from test runs and modelling, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Details

Most of the current pyrolysis/torrefaction mechanisms are not able to predict the composition of pyrolysis/torrefaction products. They usually lump the products as permanent gases, liquids (condensable species) and solid residuals. However, the composition of the emitted species is required to predict the calorific value of the torrgas and to model the possible subsequent gas phase reactions and the temperature distribution within the reactor. Therefore, in this work a mechanism from literature is applied for the first time to predict the composition of the torrgas as a combination of twenty typical species. Several experimental data sets from literature are used to evaluate the mechanism. Since the mechanism predicts several relevant species (>1% wt.) in the torrgas for which no experimental data in the literature are available, test runs at a lab-scale packed bed reactor have been performed to achieve more detailed data of torrgas composition for model validation. Among the species for which measured data are available, carbon monoxide and methanol are well predicted. The predictions of carbon dioxide, methane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and ethanol are qualitatively correct. The predictions of water vapour, acetic acid, propanal, ethylene and sugar components show deviations. However, yields of solid residual and total emitted gas and tar are well predicted by the mechanism.


Conference contributions | 2013

Steam gasification of challenging fuels in the dual fluidized bed gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Steam gasification of challenging fuels in the dual fluidized bed gasifier, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Details

In order to enlarge the range of feedstock for the dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification process, the influence of several fuel properties was studied in the 100 kW DFB pilot plant. Fuels with high concentration of nitrogen and sulfur, fuels with an increased concentration of fine particles, and fuels with extremely high content of volatiles were tested. The DFB gasification system is found to be robust and can handle all the materials. Nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine from the fuel are predominantly converted in the gasification reactor, either to gases (nitrogen, sulfur) or bound to ash (chlorine, sulfur). For the performance of the DFB gasifier, sufficient contact of fuel, product gas and bed material is important. Increasing amounts of fine particles or volatiles in the fuels lead to higher tar loads in the product gas, because the residence time of fuel particles in bubbling fluidized bed is shorter.


Books / Bookchapters | 2013

Storage and pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production

Bochmann G, Montgomery L. Storage and pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production. The biogas handbook. ISBN 978 0 85709 498 8 2013:85-103.

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Details

Biogas substrates are typically moist, which can make them difficult to store because bacteria and mould can grow on them. Ensiling, which involves the production of acid by lactic acid bacteria, is often used to preserve crops cheaply. Biogas substrates are also often fibrous, which can make them difficult to mix and means that some of their energy is locked up within the fibres. Different pre-treatment technologies are being investigated to access the energy in these fibres, to increase the rate of biogas production and to improve the mixing qualities of the substrates. Pre-treatment technologies are based on three principles: physical (including mechanical shear, heat, pressure and electric fields), chemical (acids, bases and solvents) and biological (microbial and enzymatic). Combinations of these principles are also used, including steam explosion, extrusion and thermo-chemical processes. Although many of these processes have been investigated at small scale, few have been analysed at large scale in un-biased studies. Many of these techniques are associated with high energy input (e.g. mechanical and heat pre-treatment), high equipment costs (e.g. mechanical systems where the blades erode) or use large volumes of chemicals (e.g. alkali pre-treatment). Different pre-treatment technologies work better with different substrates, and more research is required in this field to understand which combinations are worthwhile. This chapter describes some of the common pre-treatment technologies along with some advantages and disadvantages.


Conference contributions | 2013

Suitable gasification methods and gas cleaning schemes for BtL application of producer gas

Rauch, R. New processes for fuel conversion, gas cleaning and CO2 separation in FB and EF gasification of coal, biomass and waste, Workshop ” Suitable gasification methods and gas cleaning schemes for BtL application of producer gas” (held during the First International Workshop on New processes for fuel conversion, gas cleaning and CO2 separation in FB and EF gasification of coal, biomass and waste) 12th-14th of June, Prague, Czech, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Synthetic biofuels – do they have a future?

Rauch R. Synthetic biofuels – do they have a future? 8th A3PS Conference Eco-Mobility 2013, 4th of October 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

The mechanism of bed material coating in dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plants and its impact on plant optimization

Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. The mechanism of bed material coating in dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plants and its impact on plant optimization. Powder Technol. 2013;245:94-104.

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The bed material and especially its catalytic activity plays an important role in biomass steam gasification in dual fluidized bed gasifiers. The bed material is modified by interaction with biomass ash during operation of the gasification plant forming layers at the particles which are induced by the biomass ash. Optimization of dual fluidized biomass steam gasification will have significant influence on the process variables such as temperatures, inorganic composition and product gas composition. The influence of these changes on layer formation is still unknown. This paper summarizes results of investigations about bed material characteristics taken from the industrial-scale biomass steam gasification plant in Güssing where woody biomass is used as fuel. Analyses of the surface and the crystal structures of the bed material particles treated in gasification and combustion atmospheres were carried out. The thermal behavior of used olivine and fresh olivine in different atmospheres was analyzed. A suggestion for the mechanism of formation of the layers is presented and the influence of possible optimization measures is discussed. A change in the elemental composition of the surface was not detectable but a slight change in the crystal structure. Thermal investigations show a weak endothermic weight loss with used olivine in a CO2-rich atmosphere which could not be determined with fresh olivine. The formation of layers at the olivine particles is considered to be caused by the intensive contact with burning char particles in the combustion reactor. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Other Presentations | 2013

Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Sugar Beet Pressed Pulp - Optimizing of reactor performance

Stoyanova E et al. Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Sugar Beet Pressed Pulp - Optimizing of reactor performance, 13th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion 2013, 25th-28th of June 2013, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. (peer reviewed) (visual presentation)

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Other Presentations | 2013

Untersuchung verschiedener Zugverhältnisse auf die Praxisrelevanz der Prüfung von Scheitholzöfen nach EN 13240

Stressler, H. Untersuchung verschiedener Zugverhältnisse auf die Praxisrelevanz der Prüfung von Scheitholzöfen nach EN 13240, Bachelor Thesis, FH Oberösterreich, Wels, Österreich, 2013.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Untersuchung von Wirbelschichtbettmateralien mittels einer Kinetikapparatur

Yildiz, B. Determination of effects of different bed materials on steam reforming for tar reduction, Master Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2012

2nd Generation Biofuels from Biomass by steam gasification

Rauch R. 2nd Generation Biofuels from Biomass by steam gasification, 1. Nürnberger Fach-Kolloquium Methanisierung und Second Generation Fuels 2012, 29th-30th of May 2012, Nürnberg, Germany.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2012

A CFD model for thermal conversion of thermally thick biomass particles

Mehrabian R, Zahirovic S, Scharler R, Obernberger I, Kleditzsch S, Wirtz S, et al. A CFD model for thermal conversion of thermally thick biomass particles. Fuel Process Technol. 2012;95:96-108.

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Details

A one-dimensional model for the thermal conversion of thermally thick biomass particles is developed for the simulation of the fuel bed of biomass grate furnaces. The model can be applied for cylindrical and spherical particles. The particle is divided into four layers corresponding to the main stages of biomass thermal conversion. The energy and mass conservation equations are solved for each layer. The reactions are assigned to the boundaries. The model can predict the intra-particle temperature gradient, the particle mass loss rate as well as the time-dependent variations of particle size and density, as the most essential features of particle thermal conversion. When simulating the fuel bed of a biomass grate furnace, the particle model has to be numerically efficient. By reducing the number of variables and considering the lowest possible number of grid points inside the particle, a reasonable calculation time of less than 1 min for each particle is achieved. Comparisons between the results predicted by the model and by the measurements have been performed for different particle sizes, shapes and moisture contents during the pyrolysis and combustion in a single-particle reactor. The results of the model are in good agreement with experimental data which implies that the simplifications do not impair the model accuracy.


Other Presentations | 2012

Abbilden des instationären Betriebs eines Pelletkessel durch Messung und Simulation

Schnetzinger, R. Abbilden des instationären Betriebs eines Pelletkessel durch Messung und Simulation, Diploma Thesis, FH Oberösterreich, Wels, Austria, 2012.

Details

This thesis focuses on portraying the thermal behavior of a biomass pellet boiler through measurement and simulation. During operation the power of a pellet boiler changes depending on the heat demand. Detailed measurements were conducted to record this changing behavior of some boilers and estimate their levels of efficiencies. Subsequently a mathematical model was created to emulate boilers and their thermal performance without such measurements. The first part of this thesis deals with the description of the simulation model and the measurements which were carried out. Secondly, the verification of the model is discussed. For this verification simulation results of three different boilers are compared to measurement data and pictured in various diagrams. The last part of this thesis is about further simulations of these three boilers where the control units were emulated too. The model was built in the MATLAB/Simulink® environment and is generally based on
thermodynamic relationships and heat balances in a boiler. However, through constant comparison of the simulation results with the measurement data some parameters were adapted to fit the simulation to reality. Therefore this model is “semi-empirical” as physical correlations are included but some parameters were deduced from measurement. Following, the verification of the model is discussed through the comparison of measurement data and simulation results. For the verifications the boiler power, fuel mass flow as well as
the heat consumption were taken from the measurement data and set as input for the simulation. The calculated results show that the boiler model enables to portray the thermal behavior of the three boilers tested with only small divergences. At the end of this thesis it was attempted to model the control unit of the three boilers by analyzing the measurement data. Having a model for the control unit, the inputs from the measurement data are reduced to just two variables, the water inlet temperature and the water volume flow (heat consumption). The comparison of the calculated values to the measurement data shows slightly higher divergences than during the validation, especially where the simulated control unit does not behave like the real one. Through the simulation of further boilers the model could be continuously enhanced. In the future this “virtual boiler” should be used to test control algorithms of boiler control units to enhance their efficiencies.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Acute systemic and lung inflammation in C57Bl/6J mice after intratracheal aspiration of particulate matter from small-scale biomass combustion appliances based on old and modern technologies

Uski OJ, Happo MS, Jalava PI, Brunner T, Kelz J, Obernberger I, Jokiniemi J, Hirvonen M-R. Acute systemic and lung inflammation in C57Bl/6J mice after intratracheal aspiration of particulate matter from small-scale biomass combustion appliances based on old and modern technologies. Inhalation Toxicology. 2012;24(14):952-965.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation based on tests with a specially designed lab-scale reactor

Brunner T, Biedermann F, Kanzian W, Evic N, Obernberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterisation based on tests with a specially designed lab-scale reactor, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

Details

To examine relevant combustion characteristics of biomass fuels in grate combustion systems, a specially designed lab-scale reactor was developed. On the basis of tests performed with this reactor, information regarding the biomass decomposition behavior, the release of NOx precursor species, the release of ash-forming elements, and first indications concerning ash melting can be evaluated. Within the scope of several projects, the lab-scale reactor system as well as the subsequent evaluation routines have been optimized and tests with a considerable number of different biomass fuels have been performed. These tests comprised a wide variation of different fuels, including conventional wood fuels (beech, spruce, and softwood pellets), bark, wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) (poplar and willow), waste wood, torrefied softwood, agricultural biomass (straw, Miscanthus, maize cobs, and grass pellets), and peat and sewage sludge. The results from the lab-scale reactor tests show that the thermal decomposition behavior and the combustion behavior of different biomass fuels vary considerably. With regard to NOx precursors (NH3, HCN, NO, N2O, and NO2), NH3 and, for chemically untreated wood fuels, also HCN represent the dominant nitrogen species. The conversion rate from N in the fuel to N in NOx precursors varies between 20 and 95% depending upon the fuel and generally decreases with an increasing N content of the fuel. These results gained from the lab-scale reactor tests can be used to derive NOx precursor release models for subsequent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) NOx post-processing. The release of ash-forming vapors also considerably depends upon the fuel used. In general, more than 91% of Cl, more than 71% of S, 1–51% of K, and 1–50% of Na are released to the gas phase. From these data, the potential for aerosol emissions can be estimated, which varies between 18 mg/Nm3 (softwood pellets) and 320 mg/Nm3 (straw) (dry flue gas at 13% O2). Moreover, these results also provide first indications regarding the deposit formation risks associated with a certain biomass fuel. In addition, a good correlation between visually determined ash sintering tendencies and the sintering temperatures of the different fuels (according to ÖNORM CEN/TS 15370-1) could be observed.


Conference contributions | 2012

Advanced Motor Fuels

Bacovsky D. Advanced Motor Fuels, Eco-Mobility Conference 2012, 11th-12th of December 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Analyse ausgewählter europäischer Biomassemärkte

Hollinger, K. Analyse ausgewählter europäischer Biomassemärkte, Diploma Thesis, FH-Burgenland, Pinkafeld, Austria, 2012.

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Other Publications | 2012

Analytical approach for the determination of micro elements in anaerobic digestion systems by sequential extraction technique

Rachbauer, L. Analytical approach for the determination of micro elements in anaerobic digestion systems by sequential extraction technique, Master Thesis, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

Details

Der Einfluss von Nährstoffzusammensetzung und Additivzugabe beim anaeroben Abbau organischer Substanz stieß in den letzten Jahren vermehrt auf Interesse. Im Besonderen Spurenelemente haben erwiesenermaßen erheblichen Einfluss auf u.a. methanogene Archaeen und deren metabolische Aktivität. Massive Probleme der Prozessstabilität speziell bei Monovergärung unterschiedlichster Substrate können durch Co-Fermentation oder gezielte Zudosierung von Spurenelementmischungen überwunden werden. Ein profundes Verständnis der Wirkung dieser Elemente auf die verschiedenen mikrobiellen Spezies im Biogasreaktor als auch ihre Verfügbarkeit, ist die Voraussetzung für eine wirtschaftliche Gestaltung des anaeroben Fermentationsprozesses organischer Roh- als auch Reststoffe. Der heutige Stand-der-Technik zur Analyse von Biogasproben hat seinen Ursprung in der Wasser-, Abwasser- und Schlammanalytik und besteht aus einem einzelnen Filtrationsschritt vor Elementdetektion mittels ICP-OES bzw. ICP-MS. Diese Methodik erlaubt nur einen äußerst begrenzten Einblick in die Verteilung von essentiellen Spurenelementen in Anaerobreaktoren. Eine aussagekräftige Beurteilung der mikrobiellen Verfügbarkeit von beispielsweise Cobalt, Nickel oder Molybdän ist somit nur eingeschränkt möglich. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, eine bestehende Methode zur sequentiellen Extraktion aus dem Bereich der Boden- und Sedimentanalytik für die Anwendung auf Biogasproben zu adaptieren. Der daraus resultierende Einblick in die Verteilung von Spurenelementen in den einzelnen Fraktionen erlaubt eine genauere Bewertung der mikrobiellen Verfügbarkeit von Nährstoffen in Biogasreaktoren, verglichen mit bestehenden analytischen Untersuchungsmethoden. Anforderungen an das Verfahren wie die Reproduzierbarkeit der Daten, zeitsparende Analytik und wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit konnten erfüllt werden. Wiederfindungsraten zwischen 90 und 110 % wurden für die wichtigsten Spurenelemente erreicht. Durch die sequentielle Extraktion konnte gezeigt werden, dass essenzielle Mikro-Nährstoffe bis zu 98 % in einer unlöslichen Form vorliegen können. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit belegen die Anwendbarkeit der entwickelten Methodik zur Spurenelement-Extraktion in Anaerob-Systemen.


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