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Other Presentations | 2015

Survey of modern pellet boilers in Austria and Germany - System design and customer satisfaction of residential installations

Büchner D, Schraube C, Carlon E, von Sonntag J, Schwarz M, Verma VK, Ortwein A. Survey of modern pellet boilers in Austria and Germany - System design and customer satisfaction of residential installations. Applied Energy;160: 390-403.

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The variety of available technical building equipment leads to increasingly complex heating systems with various requirements for efficient operation. Furthermore, in existing buildings the heating system is often historically evolved and contains parts having different ages. Those systems have limited capacity to suit the requirements of replaced components. This paper investigates the operational behavior of small-scale pellet heating systems in Austria and Germany, considering installations in new buildings and boiler replacements in existing buildings and how they are influencing the customer satisfaction.

This investigation was carried out by means of a comprehensive survey for residential customers using pellet fired heating systems. More than 2500 questionnaires were distributed between 2011 and 2013 in Austria, Germany, Greece, Spain and the United Kingdom. In total 293 returned questionnaires were evaluated. The efficiency of the monitored heating systems was estimated using surveyed boiler parameters. Successively, the influence of different operational parameters on the boilers efficiency was evaluated with a statistical analysis, using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation.

Results showed that the correct installation of the monitored pellet heating system is easier for new buildings compared to the replacement of old fossil boilers in existing buildings. Optimal operating conditions are characterized by less frequent ignitions and by higher operational loads. Pellet systems operated with a high efficiency in both building types, but for new buildings it is more likely to occur. More than 87% of the participating customers stated that they are highly satisfied with their pellet boiler.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

The behavior of biomass and char particles in a dual fluidized bed gasification system

Kraft S, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. The behavior of biomass and char particles in a dual fluidized bed gasification system. Powder Technology 2018;338:887-897.

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Biomass gasification in fluidized beds is a complex process in which particles occur in a wide range of size and density. In this paper, the mixing behavior of the char, biomass and bed material in a gasification reactor of a typical dual fluidized bed (DFB) system was investigated in a cold flow model. Experiments with ternary mixtures were performed in which the size and the density of the used particles were varied. For the experiments, a cold flow model was constructed with a full bed material recirculation loop, similar to DFB systems. Experiments revealed that at low fluidization velocities, the smaller char particles and biomass particles occur more preferentially in the bed material recirculation stream. If the fluidization velocities are increased, this tendency diminishes. Furthermore, the experiments showed that the mass fraction of biomass particles in the recirculation stream is always higher than that of the lighter char particles. It is also shown that the current design of the gasification reactor in DFB systems is not optimal. A way to overcome this issue in existing plants is presented.

Conference contributions | 2015

The Influence of Wood Pellet Prices on Heat Generation Costs of Alternative Heating Systems

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Schmid E. The Influence of Wood Pellet Prices on Heat Generation Costs of Alternative Heating Systems, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference Papers | 2015

The role of 1H-indene in product gas of biomass gasification

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. The role of 1H-indene in product gas of biomass gasification. International Bioenergy Exhibition and Asian Bioenergy Conference 2015. October 2015, Shanghai, China.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

The Role of Leak Air in a Double-Wall Chimney

Lichtenegger K, Hebenstreit B, Pointner C, Schmidl C, Höftberger E. The role of leak air in a double-wall chimney. Heat Mass Transfer. 2015;51(6):787-94.

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In modern buildings with tight shells, often room-independent air supply is required for proper operation of biomass stoves. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with flue gas leaving through the pipe and fresh air entering through the annular gap. A one-dimensional quasi-static model based on balance equations has been developed and compared with experimental data. Inclusion of leak air is crucial for reproduction of the experimental results. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Conference contributions | 2015

Time-resolved characterization of PM10 emissions from modern small scale biomass combustion units, including PAHs

Kistler M, Schmidl C, Cetintas EC, Padouvas E, Bauer H, Puxbaum H, Kasper-Giebl A. Time-resolved characterization of PM10 emissions from modern small scale biomass combustion units, including PAHs, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (visual presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Use of Hazelnut's Pruning to Produce Biochar by Gasifier Small Scale Plant

Colantoni A, Longo L, Evic N, Gallucci F, Delfanti L. Use of Hazelnut‟s Pruning to Produce Biochar by Gasifier Small Scale Plant. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2015;5(3):873-878.

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Biochar is the product of biomass pyrolysis and gasification. One of the possible application of this product is certainly in agronomic sector, as soil amendment. However biochar use in Italy is subordinated to insert this product in fertilizer list, which biochar could be commercialized with. The aim of this paper is to know the biochar from gasification process (using an Imbert downdraft prototype), in particular investigating its potentiality as soil amendment in terms of European and Italian regulations and in terms of physical and chemical characterizations.


Conference Papers | 2015

Validation of a Kinetic Model for the Catalyzed Water Gas Shift Reaction Applying a Fe/Cr Catalyst Processing Wood Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

Kraussler M, Fail S, Plaza Quevedo A, Cortes Guerro JA, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Validation of a Kinetic Model for the Catalyzed Water Gas Shift Reaction Applying a Fe/Cr Catalyst Processing Wood Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification. 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). June 2015, Vienna, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Ventilation of Carbon Monoxide from a Biomass Pellet Storage Tank - A Study of the Effects of Variation of Temperature and Cross-Ventilation on the Efficiency of Natural Ventilation

Emhofer W, Lichtenegger K, Haslinger W, Hofbauer H, Schmutzer-Roseneder I, Aigenbauer S, et al. Ventilation of carbon monoxide from a biomass pellet storage tank - A study of the effects of variation of temperature and cross-ventilation on the efficiency of natural ventilation. Ann Occup Hyg. 2015;59(1):79-90.

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Wood pellets have been reported to emit toxic gaseous emissions during transport and storage. Carbon monoxide (CO) emission, due to the high toxicity of the gas and the possibility of it being present at high levels, is the most imminent threat to be considered before entering a pellet storage facility. For small-scale (<30 tons storage capacity) residential pellet storage facilities, ventilation, preferably natural ventilation utilizing already existing openings, has become the most favored solution to overcome the problem of high CO concentrations. However, there is little knowledge on the ventilation rates that can be reached and thus on the effectiveness of such measures. The aim of the study was to investigate ventilation rates for a specific small-scale pellet storage system depending on characteristic temperature differences. Furthermore, the influence of the implementation of a chimney and the influence of cross-ventilation on the ventilation rates were investigated. The air exchange rates observed in the experiments ranged between close to zero and up to 8 m3h-1, depending largely on the existing temperature differences and the existence of cross-ventilation. The results demonstrate that implementing natural ventilation is a possible measure to enhance safety from CO emissions, but not one without limitations. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

2250-h long term operation of a water gas shift pilot plant processing tar-rich product gas from an industrial scale dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant

Kraussler M, Binder M, Hofbauer H. 2250-h long term operation of a water gas shift pilot plant processing tar-rich product gas from an industrial scale dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 27 April 2016;41(15): 6247-6258.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Adsorptive Desulfurization: Fast On-Board Regeneration and the Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester on Desulfurization and in Situ Regeneration Performance of a Silver-Based Adsorbent

Neubauer R, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C. Adsorptive Desulfurization: Fast On-Board Regeneration and the Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester on Desulfurization and in Situ Regeneration Performance of a Silver-Based Adsorbent. Energy and Fuels. 16 June 2016;30(6): 5174-5182.

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Adsorptive on-board desulfurization units require a high desulfurization and regeneration performance for a wide range of fuels to keep them small and ensure long maintenance intervals. A novel thermal regeneration strategy was investigated in this work, fulfilling all requirements for in situ on-board regeneration. In this strategy, a temperature-controlled flow rate (TCFR) of air was used to control the temperature inside the adsorber. With this dynamic approach, the regeneration time was reduced significantly in comparison to other thermal regeneration strategies. The novel regeneration strategy was tested using Ag–Al2O3 as an adsorbent to desulfurize a benzothiophen (BT)-enriched road diesel (300 ppmw of total sulfur). A commercial diesel containing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was used to evaluate the fuel flexibility regarding desulfurization and regeneration performance. In the case of 6.63 wt % FAME and 300 ppmw of sulfur, the breakthrough adsorption capacity of sulfur decreased from 1.04 to 0.17 mg/g. In TCFR regeneration experiments, the breakthrough adsorption capacity was restored to over 94% in the case of both fuels. Thereby, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the regenerated adsorbent decreased by only 1.5%, and negligible carbon deposits were detected.


Other Presentations | 2016

Air pollution reduction due to the adoption of high efficiency small scale pellet boilers characterized by low emissions

Chiesa M, Monteleone B, Venuta ML, Maffeis G, Greco S, Cherubini A, Schmidl C, Finco A, Gerosa G, Ballarin Denti A. Air pollution reduction due to the adoption of high efficiency small scale pellet boilers characterized by low emissions. Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 July 2016;90: 262-272.

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Conference Papers | 2016

An investigation on the behavior of impurities over a water gas shift stage using biomass derived syngas for hydrogen production

Loipersböck J, Lenzi M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. An investigation on the behavior of impurities over a water gas shift stage using biomass derived syngas for hydrogen production. iSGA 2016 - 5th International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (invited lecture). November/December 2016, Busan, Korea.

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Contributions at other events | 2016

Analisi del ciclo di vita di caldaie a pellet di bassa potenza caratterizzate da alta efficienza e ridotte emissioni

Monteleone B, Chiesa M, Marzuoli R, Verma VK, Schwarz M, Carlon E, Schmidl C, Ballarin Denti A. Analisi del ciclo di vita di caldaie a pellet di bassa potenza caratterizzate da alta efficienza e ridotte emissioni. Agriforenergy. February 2016.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Analysis of optimization potential in commercial biomass gasification plants using process simulation

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Analysis of optimization potential in commercial biomass gasification plants using process simulation. Fuel Processing Technology. 01 December 2016;141: 138-147.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Apparent kinetics of the catalyzed water-gas shift reaction in synthetic wood gas

Plaza A, Fail S, Cortés JA, Föttinger K, Diaz N, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Apparent kinetics of the catalyzed water-gas shift reaction in synthetic wood gas. Chemical Engineering Journal. 1 October 2016;301: 222-228.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Associated effects of storage and mechanical pre-treatments of microalgae biomass on biomethane yields in anaerobic digestion

Gruber-Brunhumer MR, Jerney J, Zohar E, Nussbaumer M, Hieger C, Bromberger P, Bochmann G, Jirsa F, Schagerl M, Obbard JP, Fuchs W, Drosg B. Associated effects of storage and mechanical pre-treatments of microalgae biomass on biomethane yields in anaerobic digestion. Biomass and Bioenergy. October 2016;93: 259-268.

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Technical Reports | 2016

Austria – Biofuels Technology, Research and Development

Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A. Austria – Biofuels Technology, Research and Development. IEA Bioenergy Task 39 Newsletter. December 2016.

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Other publication | 2016

beReal - Comparative assessment of EN standard test methods and new real-life test methods for biomass room heating appliances

Schmidl C, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W. beReal - Comparative assessment of EN standard test methods and new real-life test methods for biomass room heating appliances. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Other publication | 2016

beReal - Development of a New Test Method for Firewood Roomheaters Reflecting Real Life Operation

Reichert G, Hartmann H, Haslinger W, Oehler H, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Woehler M. beReal - Development of a New Test Method for Firewood Roomheaters Reflecting Real Life Operation. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Other Presentations | 2016

Bidirektionale Einbindung dezentraler Einspeiser in Wärmenetze: hydraulische, wärmetechnische und regelungstechnische Aspekte

LichteneggerK, Muschick D, Gölles M, Höftberger E, Leitner A, Wöss D, Reiterer D. Bidirektionale Einbindung dezentraler Einspeiser in Wärmenetze: hydraulische, wärmetechnische und regelungstechnische Aspekte. Vortrag auf der Fachtagung Wärmenetze der Zukunft (2016 in Salzburg).

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Technical Reports | 2016

Biofuels in transport

Bacovsky D. Biofuels in transport. WPC Guide to Biofuels. September 2016.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor

Rachbauer L, Voitl G, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor. Applied Energy. 15 October 2016;180: 483-490.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2016

Biomass-Based Heating and Hot Water Supply Systems for Prefabricated, High Energy Performance Houses: a Comparison of System Configurations and Control Strategies

Carlon E, Schwarz M, Prada A, Verma V, Baratieri M, Gasparella A, Schmidl C. Biomass-Based Heating and Hot Water Supply Systems for Prefabricated, High Energy Performance Houses: a Comparison of System Configurations and Control Strategies. 12th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2016 (full paper review and oral presentation). 22 May 2016, Aalborg, Denmark.

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Nowadays prefabricated houses are becoming increasingly popular, thanks to their low cost and high energy performance. Heating systems installed in these houses should be carefully designed and controlled, to ensure sufficient thermal comfort while maintaining low fuel consumptions. This study presents the simulation of different system configurations and control strategies for a pre-fabricated house, located in Lower Austria. The house is heated by a 6 kW pellet boiler directly connected to a floor heating system, in a configuration without buffer storage tank. Using the TRNSYS simulation suite, a coupled simulation of the house and its heating and hot water supply system was set up, calibrated and validated with reference to monitoring data. As monitoring data evidenced that the control strategy of the heating system is not ideal to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature during the whole day, two improved strategies were simulated over the heating season and evaluated in terms of thermal comfort, pellet consumption and boiler’s efficiency. Moreover, to better understand the influence of the system configuration, simulations have been repeated considering another heat distribution system (radiators instead of floor heating). Results show that the radiators’ network, if adequately controlled, reduces by 85% the total discomfort time. In addition, the pellet boiler mainly operates in load modulation regime, leading to lower pellet supply rates and therefore to lower pellet consumptions (18% less than floor heating). However, the lower operational loads and frequent ignitions result in a slightly lower efficiency of the pellet boiler (4% less than the configuration with floor heating.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Characterization of biochars produced from pyrolysis of pelletized agricultural residues

Colantoni A, Evic N, Lord R, Retschitzegger S, Proto A, Gallucci F, Monarca D. Characterization of biochars produced from pyrolysis of pelletized agricultural residues. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 1 October 2016;64: 187-194.

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Biochars produced from pelletized grape vine (GV) and sunflower husk (SFH) agricultural residues were studied by pyrolysis in a batch reactor at 400 and 500 °C. Chemical and physical evolution of the biomass under pyrolysis conditions was determined and the products were characterized, including the main gaseous organic components. Results showed a decrease in solid biochar yield with increasing temperature. Biochar is defined as a “porous carbonaceous solid” produced by thermochemical conversion of organic materials in an oxygen depleted atmosphere, which has physiochemical properties suitable for the safe and long-term storage of carbon in the environment and, potentially, soil improvement. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge and acceptability of alternative use of the biochar gained from agro-forestry biomass residuals, such as grape vine and sunflower husks, by means of modern chemical and physical characterization tools.


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