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Conference contributions | 2012

Direct Heating with Logwood ‐ State of the Art, Opportunities and Challenges

Schmidl C, Haslinger W. Direct Heating with Logwood ‐ State of the Art, Opportunities and Challenges, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Domestic Heating with Biomass – State‐of‐the‐Art and Strategic Research Needs

Haslinger W. Domestic Heating with Biomass – State‐of‐the‐Art and Strategic Research Needs, Annual Conference Renewable Heating and Cooling 2012, 26th-27th of April 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Dynamic modeling of biomass pellet boilers

Schnetzinger R, Hebenstreit B, Schwarz M, Höftberger E. Dynamic modeling of biomass pellet boilers, World Bioenergy, 29th-31st of May 2012, Jönköping, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Economic boundary conditions for the successful operation of active condensation systems

Hebenstreit B, Höftberger E. Economic boundary conditions for the successful operation of active condensation systems, World Bioenergy 2012, 29th-31st of May 2012, Jönköping, Sweden.

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In this study the economic boundary conditions for successful active condensation systems are evaluated.
The concept of active condensation utilizes the flue gas enthalpy exiting the boiler by combining a quench for flue gas condensation and a heat pump. Through the heat pump the flue gas can be cooled down below the dew point of the water vapor. Therefore, the sensible heat as well as the latent heat of water can be recovered. This study evaluates the economic viability  for  different  test  cases.  On  the  one  hand  pellet  boilers  of  small  (10kW)  and  medium  (100kW)  size  are considered. On the other hand wood chip boilers of medium (100kW) and big (10MW) size are studied. The economic analysis shows a decrease in operating costs between 2% and 13%. The payback time is evaluated on a net present value (NPV) method, showing a payback time of 2-10 years for the large scale system and approx. 10-35 years for the medium sized ones.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the heating rate in biomass particles and applicability of TGA kinetic parameters in particle thermal conversion modelling.

Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the heating rate in biomass particles and applicability of TGA kinetic parameters in particle thermal conversion modelling. Fuel. 2012;93:567-75.

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A one-dimensional single particle model is utilised to investigate the effects of radiation temperature, moisture content, particle size and biomass physical properties on the heating rate in biomass particles during pyrolysis. The model divides the particle into four layers - drying, pyrolysis, char and ash layer - corresponding to the four main stages of biomass thermal conversion. The average of the time derivative of the pyrolysis layer centre temperature weighted by the pyrolysis rate is introduced as an appropriate indicator for the heating rate in the particle during pyrolysis. The influencing parameters on the heating rate are summarised in the Biot number and the thermal time constant, to make the investigation of their effects easier. The heating rate is inversely proportional to the thermal time constant. The effect of a variation of the Biot number on the heating rate is negligible in comparison to the thermal time constant. Therefore, the thermal time constant can be sufficiently used to specify the heating rate regimes during pyrolysis. It is found that for thermal time constants of more than 50 s, pyrolysis takes place in a low heating rate regime, i.e. less than 50 K/min. Additionally, the heating rate during pyrolysis of various biomass types under a wide range of thermal conversion conditions has been examined, in order to classify the heating rate regime of pyrolysis in state-of-the-are combustion/gasification plants. The pyrolysis of wood dust and wood pellets is found to happen always in high heating rate regimes. Therefore, the kinetic parameters obtained by conventional TGA systems (typically with heating rates lower than 50 K/min) are not applicable for them. On the contrary, the pyrolysis of wood logs always happens in low heating rate regimes, which indicates that kinetic parameters obtained by conventional TGA systems can be applied. However, pyrolysis of wood chips can undergo low or high heating rate regimes depending on their particle size. Concerning the moisture content, it can be stated that it does not strongly influence the heating rate regime of certain biomass particles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Other Presentations | 2012

Einfluss von Holzart und Rohstoff auf die Entstehung von Emissionen von Holzpellets während der Lagerung

Schmutzer-Rosender, I. Einfluss von Holzart und Rohstoff auf die Entstehung von Emissionen von Holzpellets während der Lagerung, Master Thesis, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Als feste biogene Brennstoffe gewinnen Pellets durch ihre hohe Energiedichte, ihre gleichbleibende Qualität und die wachsende Nachfrage immer mehr an Bedeutung. Bei der Lagerung von Holzpellets werden Emissionen frei, welche aus Abbaureaktionen von Holzbestandteilen entstehen. Es gibt bereits einige Publikationen, welche das Auftreten und die Zusammensetzung dieser Emissionen in Pelletslagern beschreiben. Es fehlen jedoch noch jegliche Nachweise zur Klärung der ursächlichen Reaktionen, weshalb die Untersuchung der Emissionen aus Pellets und deren Rohstoffen erforderlich ist.
Im Zuge dieser Arbeit werden daher zunächst die Freisetzungsraten von Kohlenmonoxid (CO) und flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) verschiedener Holzrohstoffe und Pellets in Lagerungsversuchen untersucht. Des Weiteren erfolgt die Bestimmung des organischen Extraktstoffgehaltes dieser Holzproben mittels Soxhletextraktion. Anschließend werden diese Charakteristika einander gegenübergestellt, um mögliche Zusammenhänge zu identifizieren. Bei den untersuchten Holzarten handelt es sich um die Gemeine Fichte (Picea abies), die Europäische Lärche (Larix decidua) sowie um die Weihrauchkiefer (Pinus taeda). Von diesen drei Holzarten werden verschiedene Späne und Pellets miteinander verglichen. Zudem werden unterschiedliche am österreichischen Markt erhältliche Pellets untersucht. Die höchste Freisetzung von CO wird bei frischen Kieferpellets mit 2,88 mg CO/kg Brennstoff (BS) absolute Trockenmasse (atro)/d gemessen. Die geringste Menge an CO wird von einer handelsüblichen Pelletsprobe mit 0,02 mg CO/kg BS atro/d emittiert. Allen untersuchten Holzproben ist gemein, dass in den Lagerungsversuchen höhere Mengen an CO als an VOC freigesetzt werden. Der organische Extraktstoffgehalt der Kieferproben ist am höchsten. Der geringste organische Extraktstoffgehalt tritt bei den Fichtenhobelspänen auf. Bei allen Proben wird festgestellt, dass der organische Extraktstoffgehalt mit der Pelletierung abnimmt. Zudem wird bestimmt, dass sich mit zunehmender Trocknungstemperatur der organische Extraktstoffgehalt verringert. Ein eindeutiger Zusammenhang zwischen Extraktstoffgehalt und freigesetzten Emissionsmengen kann nicht hergestellt werden.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen über typische Tageslastverläufe

Kelz J, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fi ne particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2012;24(3).

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Experimental and numerical investigations on a combined biomass-solar thermal system

Hartl M, Aigenbauer S, Helminger F, Simetzberger A, Malenkovic I. Experimental and numerical investigations on a combined biomass-solar thermal system. Energy Procedia. 2012;30:623-632. (peer reviewed)

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Other Presentations | 2012

Experimental investigations and design of a new apparatus for measurement of emissions from stored pellets

Trinkel, V. Experimental investigations and design of a new apparatus for measurement of emissions from stored pellets, Master Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Experimentelle Entwicklung eines Pellet-Raumheizgerätes

Raab, A. Experimentelle Entwicklung eines Pellet-Raumheizgerätes, Bachelor Thesis, FH Oberösterreich, Wels, Österreich, 2012.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einem Gasflammenreaktor zur Charakterisierung der Gasphasenverbrennung in Biomasserostfeuerungen

Kamnig, H. Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einem Gasflammenreaktor zur Charakterisierung der Gasphasenverbrennung in Biomasserostfeuerungen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2012.

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 Ziel der Diplomarbeit war die Bereitstellung von Messdaten für die Entwicklung eines Gasphasenverbrennungsmodells, welches den niedrig-turbulenten Strömungsbereich und den Einfluss der Strähnenbildung auf den Mischungsfortschritt von partiell vorgemischten Flammen über dem Brennstoffbett von Biomasse-Rostfeuerungen abbildet. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Konstruktion und dem Bau eines Flammenreaktors und einer Gasverteilungsstation zur Erzeugung von kalten Strömungen ohne chemische Reaktion und partiell vorgemischten Flammen mit chemischer Reaktion, welche die niedrig-turbulenten Strömungen über dem Brennstoffbett in Biomasse Rostfeuerungen genähert abbilden sollen. Zur Untersuchung der auftretenden Gas- und Luftsträhnen und deren Einfluss auf den Mischungsfortschritt über dem Biomasse Brennstoffbett, wurde für den Versuchsaufbau ein Düsenkonzept zur Gas- und Luftverteilung verwendet. In kalten Strömungen sollen die Mischungseffekte niedrig turbulenter Strömungen sowie der Mischungsfortschritt aufgrund der Strähnenbildung, entkoppelt von chemischen Reaktionen, untersucht werden. In den Flammen gilt es zusätzliche Einflüsse, wie die Expansion des Gases und die chemischen Reaktionen, zu untersuchen. Im Rahmen dieser Diplomarbeit wurden im Flammenreaktor extraktive FTIR- und RGA-Spezieskonzentrationsmessung in kalten Strömungen und in Flammen sowie optische LDA-Gasgeschwindigkeitsmessungen in kalten Strömungen durchgeführt. Für die finalen Messungen wurden nur Gaskonzentrationsmessungen mittels FTIR und RGA durchgeführt und diskutiert, da die LDA-Messeinheit nicht mehr zur Verfügung stand. Die Messergebnisse in kalten Strömungen mit einem CO2/N2-Gasgemisch und einem Luftstrom, liefern rotationssymmetrische CO2- und O2-Konzentrationsprofile. Die Messergebnisse zeigen, dass der Mischungsfortschritt entlang der Strömungsrichtung weitgehend entkoppelt ist von den Gaseintrittsgeschwindigkeiten vGas=2 m/s bis vGas=4. Die Konzentrationsergebnisse der Messungen mit den CO2/N2/Luft-Gemischen konnten mittels einer Stoffbilanz erfolgreich geprüft werden. Die Messergebnisse in kalten Strömungen entsprechen bezüglich der Gasgeschwindigkeiten zwischen 2 und 4 m/s sowie mit den Reynoldszahlen zwischen 800 und 9000 den laminaren bis niedrig-turbulenten Strömungsbedingungen von partiell vorgemischten Flammen über dem Brennstoffbett in Biomasse Rostfeuerungen. Die Messergebnisse der Flammenmessungen mit einem CH4/Luft-Gasgemisch und einem Luftstrom, liefern mit RGA- und FTIR-Messungen nicht reproduzierbare Ergebnisse innerhalb der Flamme und weisen große Gasspeziesasymmetrien in der Flamme auf. Die Messergebnisse zeigen, dass die Gaseintrittsgeschwindigkeiten vGas=2 m/s bis vGas=4 mit dem Verbrennungsfortschritt von CH4 in Strömungsrichtung gekoppelt sind. Die Konzentrationsergebnisse der Flammenmessungen mit einem CH4/Luft-Gemisch konnten mit den vorhandenen Messwerten nicht erfolgreich mittels einer Stoffbilanz geprüft werden. Zusammengefasst liefen die Konzentrationsmessungen in kalter Strömung sehr gute Messergebnisse in Hinblick auf Strömungsstabilität, rotationssymmetrische Strömungsausbildung und Messgenauigkeit. Für Messungen in kalten Strömungen sind die Messverfahren mittels FTIR und RGA zur Konzentrationsmessung und das LDA-Messverfahren zur Gasgeschwindigkeitsmessung zu empfehlen. Die RGA- und FTIR-Konzentrationsmessungen in den Flammen liefern keine zufriedenstellenden Messergebnisse aufgrund von Flammenasymmetrien sowie dem Einfluss der extraktiven Probenahme mittels einer Probenahmelanze. Für Flammenmessungen im Reaktor sind berührungsfreie, optische Messverfahren mit einer hohen Messauflösung zu empfehlen. Durchlichtverfahren benötigen zwei optische Zugänge zum Messraum. Für die Anwendung von Durchlichtverfahren müsste der Flammenreaktor von einem auf zwei optische Zugänge umgebaut werden.  


Conference contributions | 2012

Frauen‐ und Familienförderung beginnt bei Männern – Systematisches Karenzmanagement für Mütter, Väter und das Unternehmen

Haslinger W. Frauen‐ und Familienförderung beginnt bei Männern – Systematisches Karenzmanagement für Mütter, Väter und das Unternehmen, Expertenforum K3 "Karenzmanagement macht Karriere" 2012, 9th of May 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Fuel indexes –a novel method for the evaluation of relevant combustion properties of new biomass fuels

Sommersacher P, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Fuel indexes –a novel method for the evaluation of relevant combustion properties of new biomass fuels, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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The increasing demand for biomass fuels leads to the introduction of new biomass fuels into the market. These new biomass fuels (e.g., wastes and residues from agriculture and the food industry, short rotation coppices, and energy crops) are usually not well-defined regarding their combustion behavior. Therefore, fuel characterization methods with a special focus on combustion-related problems (gaseous NOx, HCl, and SOx emissions, ash-melting behavior, and PM emissions) have to be developed. For this purpose, fuel indexes are an interesting option. Fuel indexes are derived from chemical fuel analyses and are checked and evaluated regarding their applicability by measurements performed at lab- and real-scale combustion plants for a large variety of fuels. They provide the possibilities for a pre-evaluation of combustion-relevant problems that may arise from the use of a new biomass fuel. A possible relation to describe the corrosion risk is, for instance, the molar 2S/Cl ratio. The N content in the fuel is an indicator for NOx emissions, and the sum of the concentrations of K, Na, Zn, and Pb in the fuel can give a prediction of the aerosol emissions, whereas the molar (K + Na)/[x(2S + Cl)] ratio provides a first indication regarding the potential for gaseous HCl and SOx emissions. The molar Si/K ratio can supply information about the K release from the fuel to the gas phase. The molar Si/(Ca + Mg) ratio can give indications regarding the ash-melting temperatures for P-poor fuels. For P-rich fuels, the (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio can be used for the same purpose. The fuel indexes mentioned can provide a first pre-evaluation of combustion-relevant properties of biomass fuels. Therefore, time-consuming and expensive combustion tests can partly be saved. The indexes mentioned are especially developed for grate combustion plants, because interactions of the bed material possible in fluidized-bed combustion systems are not considered.


Other Presentations | 2012

Gasaufbereitung für die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese

Pölzl, P. Gasaufbereitung für die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000

Haberl H, Kastner T, Schaffartzik A, Ludwiczek N, Erb K-. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000. Ecol Econ. 2012;84:66-73.

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Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing 'teleconnections' between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The 'embodied human appropriation of NPP' (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Conference contributions | 2012

High efficient industrial process carbon capture (CC) – Field tests

Martini S, Kleinhappl M, Zeisler J. High efficient industrial process carbon capture (CC) – Field tests, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1127-1131.

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In large scale industrial processes, such as iron production, or in gasification based process chains (coal/biomass to synthesis gas, fuel, or power, etc.), the separation of CO2 (Carbon Capture-CC) can lead to ecological and procedural benefits. Chemical absorption of CO2 is a well proved technology for CC with comparatively low electrical energy demand. However, the high heat demand, absorption kinetics, CO2 capacity and sorbent degradation are limiting factors for the industrial application. Further investigation and development of sorbent-solutions in relation to specific gas conditions are necessary for optimisation. For testing different sorbent-solutions a mobile test plant was designed and built up. Focus of this work was the evaluation of process key data for CC in blast furnace gas under real conditions. The tests have been carried out continuously up to 300 hours. Aqueous monoethanol-amine (MEA), diethanol-amine (DEA) and methyl-diethanol-amine (MDEA) solutions have been investigated. Detailed analyses of the process gas, analyses of used liquids (chemical properties, degradation products) and the examination of process data lead to further development in process design, control strategies for specific applications and give routes for an efficient implementation of CC to increase the benefit in the overall process chain.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

Jalava PI, Happo MS, Kelz J, Brunner T, Hakulinen P, Mäki-Paakkanen J, et al. Invitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies. Atmos Environ. 2012;50:24-35.

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Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM 1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM 1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati ® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic composition and inorganic ash composition affected the toxicological responses differently. In conclusion, combustion technology largely affects the particulate emissions and their toxic potential this being reflected in substantially larger responses in devices with incomplete combustion. These differences become emphasized when the large emission factors from old technology appliances are taken into account. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis

Sauciuc A, Abosteif Z, Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Schaub G, Dumitrescu L. Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Biomass Conversion. 2012;2(3):253-263.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) 2012, 3rd-6th of June 2012, Naples, Italy. p 979-804. (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove

Reichert G. Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove, Conference ”Dust measuring procedures for small biomass furnaces” 2012, 7th of November 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial

Martini S. Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification

Rauch R. Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification, International Seminar on Gasification 2012, 18th-19th of October 2012, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese

Götz, F. Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier, 3rd International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (iSGA-3) 2012, 16th of October 2012, Vancouver, Canada. (peer reviewed) (oral presentation)

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass

Schablitzky HW, Lichtscheidl J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass. Modern Applied Science. 2012;6(4):28-37.

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The present study describes the application of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes as a feedstock in a pilot-scale hydroprocessing unit at operating conditions very similar to industrial size hydrotreating plants of traditional refineries. The project focus on a future coprocessing of biowax/gasoil blends due to produce bio-products derived from lignocellulosic biomass: crack gases, naphtha, kerosene, diesel and a residual product. Hydro-processing plants operating at mild cracking conditions support the production of high amounts in middle distillates at reduced coke formation. Premium bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties are the main objective of the investigations. Various test runs with different hydrotreating catalysts have been conducted due to determine the influence of waxy feedstock on catalyst behavior and product distribution. Depending on the catalyst selected, the fixed bed reactor streamed by hydrogen operates under specified cracking condition defined by the following parameters: reactor temperature, hydrogen pressure and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). Test runs with selected catalysts - isodewaxing (IDW), hydro-desulphurization (HDS) and the catalytic deparaffination (CDP) catalyst - have been executed at constant process conditions in order to compare the product spectrum and properties of product groups. Highest amounts of bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties can be obtained with the IDW catalyst. This NiW- based catalyst with special additives generates cleaved and reshaped molecular fragments via skeletal isomerisation increasing the isoparaffin content of naphtha and middle distillates. Further investigations with this catalyst type have been executed due to determine the catalyst aging effect in a separate long term test run. The loss of cracking severity during operation of the catalyst can be observed by a steady decline in conversion. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as olefins and diolefines in the bio-feedstock support the formation of a coke layer on the catalyst surface resulting in reinforced deactivation. As the consequence naphtha and finally the crack gases and the kerosene fraction are shifted to higher molecular fragments increasing the diesel and residue yield. Physicochemical properties of the product groups obtained during the test run vary and especially the cold flow properties from the diesel and kerosene fraction degrade significant. Balancing the conversion decline of the catalyst in operation can be realized by increasing the reactor temperature and the hydrogen pressure, but the effect is time limited.
 


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