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Conference contributions | 2012

BioCAT – Clean Air Technology for Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems

Haslinger W, et al. BioCAT – Clean Air Technology for Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Contributions at other events | 2012

Biocombustible materials obtained from biomass using cobalt based catalysts

Sauciuc, A. Biocombustible materials obtained from biomass using cobalt based catalysts, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Bioenergie in Österreich – Entwicklungen, Stand und Perspektiven

Ragossnig A. Bioenergie in Österreich – Entwicklungen, Stand und Perspektiven, Bioenergieforum Rostock 2012, 14th-15th of June 2012, Rostock, Germany.

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Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert die historische Entwicklung der Bioenergienutzung sowie deren aktuellen Stellenwert in der Energieversorgung Österreichs. In weiterer Folge werden auf Basis von Prognosen die zukünftige Entwicklung der Bioenergienutzung in Österreich sowie die damit einhergehenden Herausforderungen umrissen. Aktuelle Leuchtturmprojekte im Bioenergiesektor und Aspekte aus der österreichischen Bioenergieforschung ergänzen den Beitrag.

Ausgehend von der Analyse der historischen Entwicklung und der aktuellen Rolle der Erneuerbaren Energieträger im Allgemeinen wird der Stellenwert der Bioenergie im österreichischen Energiesystem insgesamt sowie in den Sektoren Wärme, elektrischer Strom und Treibstoffe im Detail diskutiert. Weiters werden die zukünftige Rolle der Bioenergie in Österreich und die Herausforderungen für den Ausbau der Bioenergienutzung umrissen. Exemplarisch wird die Rolle der Bioenergie für eine nachhaltige/regionale Energieversorgung des Burgenlands erörtert. Abschliessend werden Pilotprojekte im österreichischen Bioenergiesektor und die Strukturen der österreichischen Bioenergieforschung dargestellt.

Conference contributions | 2012

Biomass steam gasification - A platform for synthesis gas applications

Rauch R. Biomass steam gasification - A platform for synthesis gas applications, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Biomasse befeuerte automatische Öfen mittels Thermoelektrik

Höftberger E. Biomasse befeuerte automatische Öfen mittels Thermoelektrik, RENEXPO 2012, 29th of November-1st of December 2012, Salzburg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Biomasse F&E Roadmap „Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen“

Haslinger W, Höftberger E, Schmidl C, Strasser C, Wörgetter M, Kranzl L. Biomasse F&E Roadmap „Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen“, Highlights der Energieforschung. Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen 2012, 19th of April 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

BioMaxEff – Cost efficient biomass boiler systems with maximum annual efficiency and lowest emissions

Haslinger W, et al. BioMaxEff – Cost efficient biomass boiler systems with maximum annual efficiency and lowest emissions, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment

Rixrath D, Piringer G, Ragoßnig AM, Meirhofer M. Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 18th of September 2012, Florence, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment

Rixrath D, Piringer G, Ragoßnig AM, Meirhofer M. Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 17th-19th of September 2012, Florence, Italy. (peer reviewed)

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Management of municipal and commercial waste in Austria frequently involves mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) followed by incineration. A middle-caloric MBT output stream (lower heating value (LHV) = 9.90 MJ/kg WW, particle size = 20-80 mm) with a high proportion of inert material like stones, bricks, and metals (40.5 %m) is currently incinerated. Under favorable market conditions, it could be economically advantageous to split off a low-caloric heavy fraction (HF) that can be landfilled and to incinerate only the remaining, lighter fraction (LF) with a higher heating value. This study analyzes the specific global-warming potential (100-year GWP per tonne of input waste) of such an additional separation step and of the subsequent treatment processes. Four treatment alternatives were considered: a reference scenario without separation and three separation scenarios – a near-infrared (NIR) sensor-based scenario, an X-ray-transmission (XRT) sensor-based scenario, and a mechanical separation scenario using a diagonal sifter (DS). To calculate the specific GWP, the analysis applied techniques from life-cycle assessment (LCA). Primary data were obtained from pilot-scale and full-scale separation experiments, and from equipment manufacturers. Commercial databases provided secondary data. The results consist of separate LCA models for each scenario, including credits for fossil fuels replaced by LF incineration and HF landfill gas utilization. When only direct separation-related emissions are considered, the DS separation has by far the lowest specific GWP, followed by NIR-based separation, and by XRT-based separation. Overall specific GWP is strongly influenced by the choice of separation technology. It is lowest for the XRT scenario, followed closely by the reference scenario, while the DS and NIR scenarios show considerably higher results. Results are dominated by the net emissions from LF incineration. While incineration emissions are largely compensated by credits from replaced fossil fuels, credits for landfill gas utilization are much smaller than direct landfilling emissions. The ranking of the separation scenarios is largely determined by three waste stream characteristics: the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon content and the LHV in the LF, and the degradable biogenic carbon content in the HF. Changes in important modeling assumptions leave the ranking between scenarios unchanged. It can be concluded that – given the right choice of
separation technology – a small positive effect of sorting on the overall specific GWP is feasible. This
work demonstrates that global warming effects of waste treatment decisions can be estimated and
considered early in the planning stage of treatment system design.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Characterisation of Jatropha curcas seeds and oil from Mali

Rathbauer J, Sonnleitner A, Pirot R, Zeller R, Bacovsky D. Characterisation of Jatropha curcas seeds and oil from Mali. Biomass Bioenergy. 2012;47:201-10.

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This publication deals with the characterisation of Jatropha curcas seeds and the oil obtained hereof. The analyzed seeds have been harvested from hedges and plantations in the regions of Teriya Bugu and Bla in Mali in the years 2009 and 2010. The oil is obtained through solvent extraction. Parameters analyzed are those which are relevant for processing of the oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel), and include acid value, fatty acid profile and contents of S, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg. All oil samples are suitable for processing into biodiesel, but some of them require pre-treatment because of high contents of free fatty acids and phosphorous. The margin of deviation of acid value and element contents throughout the oil samples depends on the way of cultivation, harvest and storage of the Jatropha curcas plants and seeds. Despite high acid values, all oil samples show high oxidation stability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-reviewed publications | 2012

CHP-Plant Güssing, Austria

Rauch R. CHP-Plant Güssing, Austria. Handbook biomass gasification - Second Edition. ISBN 9789081938501 2012:32-36.

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO aus Holzpellets. Bildung, Charakterisierung und Maßnahmen

Emhofer W, Aigenbauer S. CO aus Holzpellets. Bildung, Charakterisierung und Maßnahmen, 12. Holzenergiesymposium 2012, 14th of September 2012, Zürich, Schweiz. p 147-158 (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO off‐gassing from pellets: Impact of raw material choice and storage conditions – Implications for pellets standardization

Emhofer W. CO off‐gassing from pellets: Impact of raw material choice and storage conditions – Implications for pellets standardization, World Bioenergy 2012, 29th-31st of May 2012 Jönköping, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO2-Grenzvermeidungskosten alternativer Brennstoffe in der Zementindustrie

Ragoßnig AM, Plank R, Ehrenberg C. CO2-Grenzvermeidungskosten alternativer Brennstoffe in der Zementindustrie, DepoTech 2012, 6th-9th of October 2012, Leoben, Austria. p 283-288.

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Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert die Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Brennstoffversorgungsszenarios im Calcinator des Zementherstellungsprozesses auf die emittierten CO2-Emissionen. In weiterer Folge werden die Grenzvermeidungskosten für CO2 im Vergleich zum Referenzszenario (100 % PetCoke) berechnet und dargestellt. Als alternative Brennstoffe werden auf Basis von Betriebserfahrungen sowie großtechnischer Versuche die alternativen Brennstoffe hochkalorischer Fluff (Standardszenario) sowie Schilf (Szenario A) und biogen angereicherter Ersatzbrennstoff (Szenario B) und vergleichend dazu in einer Literaturbasierten Analyse getrockneter Klärschlamm (Szenario C) betrachtet. Um die Auswirkung sich ändernder Marktbedingungen auf die Grenzvermeidungskosten abzubilden erfolgt eine Sensitivitätsanalyse hinsichtlich der Brennstoffgestehungskosten für die alternativen Brennstoffe sowie drei unterschiedliche Preisniveaus für Emissionsrechte und Brennstoffgestehungskosten des Referenzbrennstoffes PetCoke.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion by removal with a hollow fiber membrane contactor

Lauterböck B, Ortner M, Haider R, Fuchs W. Counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion by removal with a hollow fiber membrane contactor. Water Res. 2012;46(15):4861-9.

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The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of membrane contactors for continuous ammonia (NH3-N) removal in an anaerobic digestion process and to counteract ammonia inhibition. Two laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed slaughterhouse wastes with ammonium (NH4+) concentrations ranging from 6 to 7.4 g/L. One reactor was used as reference reactor without any ammonia removal. In the second reactor, a hollow fiber membrane contactor module was used for continuous ammonia removal. The hollow fiber membranes were directly submerged into the digestate of the anaerobic reactor. Sulfuric acid was circulated in the lumen as an adsorbent solution. Using this set up, the NH4+-N concentration in the membrane reactor was significantly reduced. Moreover the extraction of ammonia lowered the pH by 0.2 units. In combination that led to a lowering of the free NH3-N concentration by about 70%. Ammonia inhibition in the reference reactor was observed when the concentration exceeded 6 g/L NH4+-N or 1-1.2 g/L NH3-N. In contrast, in the membrane reactor the volatile fatty acid concentration, an indicator for process stability, was much lower and a higher gas yield and better degradation was observed. The chosen approach offers an appealing technology to remove ammonia directly from media having high concentrations of solids and it can help to improve process efficiency in anaerobic digestion of ammonia rich substrates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Conference contributions | 2012

Development of an empirical model to describe the local high temperature corrosion risk of 13CrMo4-5 steel in biomass CHP plants regarding the fuel wood chips

Gruber T, Schulze K, Scharler R, Oberberger I. Development of an empirical model to describe the local high temperature corrosion risk of 13CrMo4-5 steel in biomass CHP plants regarding the fuel wood chips, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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Contributions at other events | 2012

Development of the 1MW Bio-SNG plant, evaluation on technological and economical aspects and upscaling considerations

Rehling, B. Development of the 1MW Bio-SNG plant, evaluation on technological and economical aspects and upscaling considerations, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Direct Heating with Logwood ‐ State of the Art, Opportunities and Challenges

Schmidl C, Haslinger W. Direct Heating with Logwood ‐ State of the Art, Opportunities and Challenges, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Domestic Heating with Biomass – State‐of‐the‐Art and Strategic Research Needs

Haslinger W. Domestic Heating with Biomass – State‐of‐the‐Art and Strategic Research Needs, Annual Conference Renewable Heating and Cooling 2012, 26th-27th of April 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Dynamic modeling of biomass pellet boilers

Schnetzinger R, Hebenstreit B, Schwarz M, Höftberger E. Dynamic modeling of biomass pellet boilers, World Bioenergy, 29th-31st of May 2012, Jönköping, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Economic boundary conditions for the successful operation of active condensation systems

Hebenstreit B, Höftberger E. Economic boundary conditions for the successful operation of active condensation systems, World Bioenergy 2012, 29th-31st of May 2012, Jönköping, Sweden.

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In this study the economic boundary conditions for successful active condensation systems are evaluated.
The concept of active condensation utilizes the flue gas enthalpy exiting the boiler by combining a quench for flue gas condensation and a heat pump. Through the heat pump the flue gas can be cooled down below the dew point of the water vapor. Therefore, the sensible heat as well as the latent heat of water can be recovered. This study evaluates the economic viability  for  different  test  cases.  On  the  one  hand  pellet  boilers  of  small  (10kW)  and  medium  (100kW)  size  are considered. On the other hand wood chip boilers of medium (100kW) and big (10MW) size are studied. The economic analysis shows a decrease in operating costs between 2% and 13%. The payback time is evaluated on a net present value (NPV) method, showing a payback time of 2-10 years for the large scale system and approx. 10-35 years for the medium sized ones.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the heating rate in biomass particles and applicability of TGA kinetic parameters in particle thermal conversion modelling.

Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the heating rate in biomass particles and applicability of TGA kinetic parameters in particle thermal conversion modelling. Fuel. 2012;93:567-75.

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A one-dimensional single particle model is utilised to investigate the effects of radiation temperature, moisture content, particle size and biomass physical properties on the heating rate in biomass particles during pyrolysis. The model divides the particle into four layers - drying, pyrolysis, char and ash layer - corresponding to the four main stages of biomass thermal conversion. The average of the time derivative of the pyrolysis layer centre temperature weighted by the pyrolysis rate is introduced as an appropriate indicator for the heating rate in the particle during pyrolysis. The influencing parameters on the heating rate are summarised in the Biot number and the thermal time constant, to make the investigation of their effects easier. The heating rate is inversely proportional to the thermal time constant. The effect of a variation of the Biot number on the heating rate is negligible in comparison to the thermal time constant. Therefore, the thermal time constant can be sufficiently used to specify the heating rate regimes during pyrolysis. It is found that for thermal time constants of more than 50 s, pyrolysis takes place in a low heating rate regime, i.e. less than 50 K/min. Additionally, the heating rate during pyrolysis of various biomass types under a wide range of thermal conversion conditions has been examined, in order to classify the heating rate regime of pyrolysis in state-of-the-are combustion/gasification plants. The pyrolysis of wood dust and wood pellets is found to happen always in high heating rate regimes. Therefore, the kinetic parameters obtained by conventional TGA systems (typically with heating rates lower than 50 K/min) are not applicable for them. On the contrary, the pyrolysis of wood logs always happens in low heating rate regimes, which indicates that kinetic parameters obtained by conventional TGA systems can be applied. However, pyrolysis of wood chips can undergo low or high heating rate regimes depending on their particle size. Concerning the moisture content, it can be stated that it does not strongly influence the heating rate regime of certain biomass particles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Other Presentations | 2012

Einfluss von Holzart und Rohstoff auf die Entstehung von Emissionen von Holzpellets während der Lagerung

Schmutzer-Rosender, I. Einfluss von Holzart und Rohstoff auf die Entstehung von Emissionen von Holzpellets während der Lagerung, Master Thesis, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Als feste biogene Brennstoffe gewinnen Pellets durch ihre hohe Energiedichte, ihre gleichbleibende Qualität und die wachsende Nachfrage immer mehr an Bedeutung. Bei der Lagerung von Holzpellets werden Emissionen frei, welche aus Abbaureaktionen von Holzbestandteilen entstehen. Es gibt bereits einige Publikationen, welche das Auftreten und die Zusammensetzung dieser Emissionen in Pelletslagern beschreiben. Es fehlen jedoch noch jegliche Nachweise zur Klärung der ursächlichen Reaktionen, weshalb die Untersuchung der Emissionen aus Pellets und deren Rohstoffen erforderlich ist.
Im Zuge dieser Arbeit werden daher zunächst die Freisetzungsraten von Kohlenmonoxid (CO) und flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) verschiedener Holzrohstoffe und Pellets in Lagerungsversuchen untersucht. Des Weiteren erfolgt die Bestimmung des organischen Extraktstoffgehaltes dieser Holzproben mittels Soxhletextraktion. Anschließend werden diese Charakteristika einander gegenübergestellt, um mögliche Zusammenhänge zu identifizieren. Bei den untersuchten Holzarten handelt es sich um die Gemeine Fichte (Picea abies), die Europäische Lärche (Larix decidua) sowie um die Weihrauchkiefer (Pinus taeda). Von diesen drei Holzarten werden verschiedene Späne und Pellets miteinander verglichen. Zudem werden unterschiedliche am österreichischen Markt erhältliche Pellets untersucht. Die höchste Freisetzung von CO wird bei frischen Kieferpellets mit 2,88 mg CO/kg Brennstoff (BS) absolute Trockenmasse (atro)/d gemessen. Die geringste Menge an CO wird von einer handelsüblichen Pelletsprobe mit 0,02 mg CO/kg BS atro/d emittiert. Allen untersuchten Holzproben ist gemein, dass in den Lagerungsversuchen höhere Mengen an CO als an VOC freigesetzt werden. Der organische Extraktstoffgehalt der Kieferproben ist am höchsten. Der geringste organische Extraktstoffgehalt tritt bei den Fichtenhobelspänen auf. Bei allen Proben wird festgestellt, dass der organische Extraktstoffgehalt mit der Pelletierung abnimmt. Zudem wird bestimmt, dass sich mit zunehmender Trocknungstemperatur der organische Extraktstoffgehalt verringert. Ein eindeutiger Zusammenhang zwischen Extraktstoffgehalt und freigesetzten Emissionsmengen kann nicht hergestellt werden.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen über typische Tageslastverläufe

Kelz J, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fi ne particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2012;24(3).

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Experimental and numerical investigations on a combined biomass-solar thermal system

Hartl M, Aigenbauer S, Helminger F, Simetzberger A, Malenkovic I. Experimental and numerical investigations on a combined biomass-solar thermal system. Energy Procedia. 2012;30:623-632. (peer reviewed)

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