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Conference contributions | 2012

Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial

Martini S. Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification

Rauch R. Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification, International Seminar on Gasification 2012, 18th-19th of October 2012, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese

Götz, F. Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier, 3rd International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (iSGA-3) 2012, 16th of October 2012, Vancouver, Canada. (peer reviewed) (oral presentation)

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass

Schablitzky HW, Lichtscheidl J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass. Modern Applied Science. 2012;6(4):28-37.

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The present study describes the application of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes as a feedstock in a pilot-scale hydroprocessing unit at operating conditions very similar to industrial size hydrotreating plants of traditional refineries. The project focus on a future coprocessing of biowax/gasoil blends due to produce bio-products derived from lignocellulosic biomass: crack gases, naphtha, kerosene, diesel and a residual product. Hydro-processing plants operating at mild cracking conditions support the production of high amounts in middle distillates at reduced coke formation. Premium bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties are the main objective of the investigations. Various test runs with different hydrotreating catalysts have been conducted due to determine the influence of waxy feedstock on catalyst behavior and product distribution. Depending on the catalyst selected, the fixed bed reactor streamed by hydrogen operates under specified cracking condition defined by the following parameters: reactor temperature, hydrogen pressure and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). Test runs with selected catalysts - isodewaxing (IDW), hydro-desulphurization (HDS) and the catalytic deparaffination (CDP) catalyst - have been executed at constant process conditions in order to compare the product spectrum and properties of product groups. Highest amounts of bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties can be obtained with the IDW catalyst. This NiW- based catalyst with special additives generates cleaved and reshaped molecular fragments via skeletal isomerisation increasing the isoparaffin content of naphtha and middle distillates. Further investigations with this catalyst type have been executed due to determine the catalyst aging effect in a separate long term test run. The loss of cracking severity during operation of the catalyst can be observed by a steady decline in conversion. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as olefins and diolefines in the bio-feedstock support the formation of a coke layer on the catalyst surface resulting in reinforced deactivation. As the consequence naphtha and finally the crack gases and the kerosene fraction are shifted to higher molecular fragments increasing the diesel and residue yield. Physicochemical properties of the product groups obtained during the test run vary and especially the cold flow properties from the diesel and kerosene fraction degrade significant. Balancing the conversion decline of the catalyst in operation can be realized by increasing the reactor temperature and the hydrogen pressure, but the effect is time limited.
 


Conference contributions | 2012

Key-note lecture: Novel characterisation methods for biomass fuels and their application

Obernberger I. Key-note lecture: Novel characterisation methods for biomass fuels and their application, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Modern logwood stoves – Requirements, Development, Evaluation

Schmidl C, Aigenbauer S, Figl F, Haslinger W, Moser W, Verma VK. Modern logwood stoves – Requirements, Development, Evaluation, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2012

Odor, gaseous and PM 10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to central Europe

Kistler M, Schmidl C, Padouvas E, Giebl H, Lohninger J, Ellinger R, et al. Odor, gaseous and PM 10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to central Europe. Atmos Environ. 2012;51:86-93.

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In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as “common oak”), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, “garden biomass” such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets.

The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ−1 for CO; 89 mg MJ−1 for NOx, 311 mg MJ−1 for CxHy, 67 mg MJ−1 for particulate matter PM10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m−3. CO, CxHy and PM10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NOx – comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. CxHy and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NOx rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m−3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, CxHy and PM10. For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m−3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m−3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration.


Conference contributions | 2012

Operation Experience & Developments at Industrial Plants with Dual‐Fluid Gasification

Hofbauer H. Operation Experience & Developments at Industrial Plants with Dual‐Fluid Gasification, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Particulate matter emissions from small-scale biomass combustion systems – characterisation and primary measures for emission reduction

Brunner T. Particulate matter emissions from small-scale biomass combustion systems – characterisation and primary measures for emission reduction, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Prediction of biomass ash melting behaviour – correlation between the data obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA)

Evic N, Brunner T, Oberberger I. Prediction of biomass ash melting behaviour – correlation between the data obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 807-813.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plant

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig AM, Sommer M. Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plant, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 18th of September 2012, Florence, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plants

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig AM, Sommer M. Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plants, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 17th-19th of September 2012, Florence, Italy. (peer reviewed)

Details

Heavy fractions resulting from mechanical treatment stages of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants are posing very specific demands with regard to further treatment/disposal as they contain a high portion of inert material as well as a high portion of high calorific components. Based on the current Austrian legal situation (landfill ordinance: max. Higher Calorific Value (HCV) for MBT-fractions to be landfilled = 6,600 kJ/kg DM) this waste stream cannot be landfilled but must be thermally treated. In economic terms it is desirable to separate high calorific from inert waste components in order to allow for a material specific routing taking advantage of the difference in the costs for the downstream treatment / disposal.
In this conference contribution results of extensive processing experiments with the heavy fraction from the mechanical stage of the MBT plant of Umweltdienst Burgenland in Oberpullendorf, Austria, are presented. Experiments have been conducted with three different sensor-based automatic sorting systems (NIR – Multiplexer, NIR – Spectral Imaging, X-Ray transmission) as well as two density based processing technologies (wet treatment with a jigger, dry treatment with a cross flow air separation device). In addition a rotary shredder, which allows selective crushing, followed by screening has been investigated.
The performance of the processing options have been evaluated by characterizing the resulting product streams by means of manual sorting in order to evaluate purity and yield achieved by the respective treatment options. In addition to that chemical and physical parameters relevant for further treatment / disposal steps for the resulting product streams have been analysed. The inert fraction has been evaluated regarding the landfilling on a mass waste landfill on one hand and on a C&D waste landfill on the other hand. The high calorific product stream has been evaluated with regard to its thermal utilization.
Complementing the technical evaluation of the processing options an economical assessment of the processing options looked at including the economical implications of the resulting changes in the routing of the waste streams has been conducted.


Conference contributions | 2012

Produktentwicklung von Biomassekesseln – Rollenprüfstandstest für Biomassekessel kleiner Leistung

Haslinger W. Produktentwicklung von Biomassekesseln – Rollenprüfstandstest für Biomassekessel kleiner Leistung, Innovationsforum Ökoenergie-Cluster 2012, 18th of October 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Recent Gas sampling and analysis methods for the determination of condensable gas components in fuel gases and synthesis gases from pyrolysis and gasification

Neubauer Y, Kleinhappl M. Recent Gas sampling and analysis methods for the determination of condensable gas components in fuel gases and synthesis gases from pyrolysis and gasification, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1095-1096.

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A workshop on sampling and analysis of gas impurities (mainly condensables (tar)) in gases from thermochemical conversion processes was held in Berlin at the 19th EU BC+E. Here the outcomes are shortly summarized and the activities in the after course of the workshop are briefly discussed. An international working group formed to further discuss the important topics of analytics in these gas families was formed. Further ongoing and planned activities will be mentioned.


Conference contributions | 2012

Reflexions on the existing guideline (and EN) about the sampling and analysis of tar matter from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas

Zeisler J, Kleinhappl M, Martini S, Neubauer Y. Reflexions on the existing guideline (and EN) about the sampling and analysis of tar matter from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 884-897.

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In the last years sampling at various gasification plants has been performed at Bioenergy2020+. The equipment, which is based on the recommendations of the tar guideline, has been further developed and adjusted to specific needs. For an evaluation of the procedure different parts of the equipment were tested with a new developed gas-generating unit. Most effort has been performed at the absorption of BTXE-S and PAH in 2-propanol. Additionally new characterisation-methods for pyrolysis samples with SPE (Solid Phase Extraction) have been tested and a qualitative identification of main components could be achieved. Furthermore tests for stabilisation and storage of samples were done. The results of the investigations represent an ongoing optimisation-work with the aim of establishing an international working-group which will compile guidelines for sampling organic and inorganic components at gasification and pyrolysis plants with different new online and offline methods. The appendix delivers some useful data about the substances and dynamic precipitation in an investigated impinger step.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Rotary kiln pyrolysis of straw and fermentation residues in a 3 MW pilot plant – Influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolysis product performance

Kern S, Halwachs M, Kampichler G, Pfeifer C, Pröll T, Hofbauer H. Rotary kiln pyrolysis of straw and fermentation residues in a 3 MW pilot plant - Influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolysis product performance. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2012;97:1-10.

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The idea of co-firing biomass in an already existing coal-fired power plant could play a major contribution in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Huge amounts of unused biomass in terms of agricultural residues such as straw, which is a cheap and local feedstock, are often available. But due to the high amount of corrosive ash elements (K, Cl, etc.), the residues are usually not suitable for co-firing in a thermal power plant. Therefore, the feedstock is converted by low temperature pyrolysis into gaseous pyrolysis products and charcoal. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant located next to a coal-fired power plant near Vienna was set up in 2008. For the process, an externally heated rotary kiln reactor with a design fuel power of 3 MW is used which can handle about 0.6-0.8 t/h straw. The aim is to investigate the fundamentals for scale-up to the desired size for co-firing in a coal-fired power plant. In addition to the desired fuel for the process, which is wheat straw, a testing series for DDGS was also performed. The high amount of pyrolysis oil in the gas had positive effects on the heating value of the pyrolysis gas. Chemical efficiencies of this pyrolysis pilot plant of up to 67% for pyrolysis temperatures between 450°C and 600°C can be reached. The focus of this work is set on the pyrolysis products and their behavior at different pyrolysis temperatures as well as the performance of the pyrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Conference contributions | 2012

Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts

Martini S. Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts, 5th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts

Martini S. Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Freiberg, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

State-of-the-art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems

Obernberger I. State-of-the-art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

State‐of‐the‐art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems

Mandl C, Obernberger I, Biedermann F. State‐of‐the‐art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 732-738.

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The objectives of the present study were to: (a) develop an appropriate estimation method for assessing the characteristic ash melting temperatures of different biomass fuels by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TEC) based on ash analysis data, (b) estimate the correlation between the results obtained from TEC and the experimentally received data for the melting temperatures using a TGA/DSC-method (thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry) and, (c) evaluate the applicability of the TEC and DSC methods as prediction tools for the melting behaviour of biomass ashes in relation to the conventional ash melting test according to DIN 51730. The results are presented for four selected biomass ash samples: straw, miscanthus, beech and bark (spruce). The agreement between the results obtained from TEC and experimental results (TGA/DSC and standard ash melting test) was reasonably good. For comparison between the experimental results and TEC regarding the deformation temperature it is recommended to utilize the temperature range between T15 and T30 estimated by TEC at 15 wt% and 30 wt% molten phase respectively. Differences between calculated melting temperatures T30 for straw (770°C) and bark (1,280°C) on the one side, and experimentally determined data on the other side are lower than 100°C. In the case of miscanthus and beech ash the prediction was with a deviation of around 200°C less precise. Flow temperatures measured as per standard test (DIN 51730) show generally a good agreement with the TEC fusion temperatures at 70 wt% of molten fraction (T70) for straw, miscanthus and bark ash. In case of beech ash is the TEC prediction of T70 (>1,600°C) moved to higher temperatures compared to experimental expected 1,380°C. The results of this study in combination with reliable databases and an appropriate calculation model, qualify the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations as a useful technique for a prediction of the ash melting behaviour including the assessment of characteristic melting temperatures.


Conference contributions | 2012

STATUS and FUTURE of bioSNG in EUROPE

Rauch R. STATUS and FUTURE of bioSNG in EUROPE, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Steigerung des Jahreswirkungsgrads von Pelletsheizungen

Schmidl C. Steigerung des Jahreswirkungsgrads von Pelletsheizungen, 12. Industrieforum Pellets 2012, 9th-10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Strategic Research Priorities for Biomass Technology

Haslinger W. Strategic Research Priorities for Biomass Technology, 4th Annual Meeting of the RHC-platform biomass panel 2012, 10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

System performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler

Aigenbauer S, Hartl M, Malenkovic I, Simetzberger A, Vverma VK, Schmidl C. System performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1320-1324.

Details

A pellet burner directly integrated into the solar storage provides heat and domestic hot water for small
residential applications in an environment-friendly way. The objective of this work was to evaluate the system
performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler in laboratory under transient test conditions. Furthermore, the type
test results according to ÖNORM EN 303-5 [1] of the last decade were compared with monitoring data of systems
with separated boiler and heat storage. The laboratory tests allowed finding relevant parameters and losses, which
influence the system performance. A developed computer simulation model shows the potential to optimize the
performance of the investigated boiler.


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