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Conference contributions | 2012

The actual need of a guideline for sampling and analysis of chemical matter (not tars) from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas

Zeisler J, Kleinhappl M, Martini S, Neubauer Y. The actual need of a guideline for sampling and analysis of chemical matter (not tars) from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 919-925.

Details

Due to the increasing number of different online and offline methods and procedures for sampling at gasification and pyrolysis plants a comparison of the measured values is difficult. About the sampling of tars already a number of detailed guidelines and a common approach are established [2]. In terms of discrete chemical impurities the missing of a guideline for sampling at biomass¬ plants is an obstacle for implementing sampling systems in new plants or experimental assemblies. Nevertheless the knowledge is available at several institutions but it has to be collected. Within this paper the basic challenges of sampling are mentioned, the system at Bioenergy2020+ is explained in detail and about the parameters NH3, H2S & HCN useful results of optimisation are reported. This status should help to point out the need of a reliable library of methods. According the first systematisation of offline and online sampling respectively detection a table of application is proposed. The detailed knowledge for this will be treated and exchanged within an established working group which should lead to a guideline (at least methods library) for sampling of trace components as described.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

The positive effects of bed material coating on tar reduction in a dual fluidized bed gasifier

Kirnbauer F, Wilk V, Kitzler H, Kern S, Hofbauer H. The positive effects of bed material coating on tar reduction in a dual fluidized bed gasifier. Fuel. 2012;95:553-562.

Details

The utilization of biomass for the substitution of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in biomass steam gasification plants is a promising technology for the production of electricity, heat, and fuels for transportation. Experience from industrial scale dual fluidized bed steam gasification plants showed a modification of the bed material due to the interaction of the bed material (olivine) with biomass ash components and additives. In this paper the influence of bed material modification on the gasification properties of used olivine from an industrial scale plant in Güssing is compared with the case of fresh olivine. The trials were carried out under similar conditions in a pilot plant at the Vienna University of Technology. The pilot plant trials showed an increase in hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the product gas with the used bed material while the content of carbon monoxide in the product gas decreased. The exothermal water–gas shift reaction is enhanced by the used bed material, resulting in a lower energy demand for the gasification. Tar content was decreased by around 80% for tars detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the composition of the tar showed less components during the trial with used bed material.

The results obtained with the used bed material at the 100 kW pilot plant are in good agreement with those for the 8 MW industrial plant in Güssing, confirming good scale-up properties from the 100 kW plant to industrial scale plants.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Variation of Feedstock in a Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Gasifier ‐ Influence on Product Gas, Tar Content and Composition

Schmid JC, Wolfesberger U, Koppatz S, Pfeifer C, Hofbauer H. Variation of feedstock in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier-influence on product gas, tar content, and composition. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 2012;31(2):205-15.

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Details

A steam blown dual fluidized bed gasification plant was used to yield a nitrogen (N 2) free product gas (synthesis gas) from various biomass fuels. In addition to the variation of process parameters like temperature, steam to carbon ratio, fluidization rate, and the influence of different bed materials, various feedstock inputs affected the generation of the product gas. This study focuses on the gasification of different biomass feedstock. The variation of biomass implies wood chips, wood pellets, sewage sludge pellets, and straw pellets. The chosen evaluated experimental results are all gained from the uniformly operated "classical" 100 kW "DUAL FLUID" gasifier at Vienna University of Technology at constant gasification temperatures between 800°C and 810°C. In the "classical" design, the gasification reactor is a bubbling fluidized bed. The composition and ash melting behavior of each feedstock is displayed, as well as the ranges of the product gas compositions generated. Beside the main gaseous product gas components, typical content ranges of dust and char are highlighted. The content and composition of tar in the product gas is discussed. Further it is possible to present gravimetrical and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry measured tar values. Not less than five significant component-groups of tar will also be outlined for each feedstock. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).


Conference contributions | 2012

Vergleichsanalyse der Vergasung eines biogen und fossil angereicherten EBS

Sommer M, Ragoßnig AM, Kleinhappl M. Vergleichsanalyse der Vergasung eines biogen und fossil angereicherten EBS, DepoTech 2012, 6th-9th of October 2012, Leoben, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Verwertung von Reststoffen aus der Lebensmittelproduktion zur Gewinnung von Prozessenergie.

Drosg B, Ortner M, Bochmann G. Verwertung von Reststoffen aus der Lebensmittelproduktion zur Gewinnung von Prozessenergie, Lebensmittel-Cluster Oberösterreich „ Strom - Wärme - Kälte - Wege zum energieeffizienteren Lebensmittelbetrieb“ 2012, 21th of March 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Zustandsschätzung einer Biomassefeuerungsanlage und deren modellbasierte Regelung

Seeber, R. Zustandsschätzung einer Biomassefeuerungsanlage und deren modellbasierte Regelung, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2012.

Details

Die Verbrennung fester Biomasse gewinnt als nachhaltige Form der Energienutzung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Dabei stellt die Forderung nach einem schadstoffarmen Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungsanlagen bei möglichst hohem Wirkungsgrad eine Herausforderung an deren Regelung dar. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung und Verbesserung eines existierenden, modellbasierten Regelungskonzepts, welches die Methode der Eingangs-Ausgangslinearisierung zur Regelung sowie einen Erweiterten Kalmanfilter zur Zustandsschätzung vorsieht. Die Arbeiten wurden in Kooperation mit dem Kompetenzzentrum Bioenergy 2020+ anhand einer Versuchsanlage (Flachschubrostfeuerung mit einer Kesselnennleistung von 180 kW) durchgeführt. Dabei lassen sich eine Reihe von Störeinflüssen identifizieren, unter anderem etwa die bei dieser Anlage besonders stark ausgeprägten Schwankungen des abgebauten Brennstoffs. Die geeignete Berücksichtigung dieser Störeinflüsse im Kalmanfilter durch Formfilter wird untersucht. Ebenso erfolgt die Modellierung von variablen Totzeiten und Sensordynamiken, die bei der Messung einzelner Größen auftreten, durch zusätzliche Sensormodelle. Auf Basis dieser Ergebnisse wird ein neuer Kalmanfilter vorgeschlagen und implementiert. Die auftretenden Störeinflüsse führen bei der exakt linearisierten Strecke zu einer Abweichung vom geforderten linearen Übertragungsverhalten. Daher wird auch der Regler dahingehend modifiziert, dass die vom Kalmanfilter rekonstruierten Störgrößen bei der Ermittlung des nichtlinearen Zustandsregelgesetzes verwendet werden. Das modifizierte Regelungskonzept wurde abschließend an der untersuchten Anlage implementiert und experimentell verifiziert. Dabei wurden gegenüber der ursprünglichen Regelung eine deutliche Verbesserung bei der Stabilisierung von Vorlauf- und Sekundärzonentemperatur sowie eine geringere Abweichung des Verbrennungsluftverhältnisses im Brennstoffbett vom vorgegebenen Sollwert erzielt.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2011

A carbon-cycle-based stochastic cellular automata climate model

Lichtenegger K, Schappacher W. A carbon-cycle-based stochastic cellular automata climate model. International Journal of Modern Physics C. 2011;22(6):607-621.

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Details

In this paper a stochastic cellular automata model is examined, which has been developed to study a "small" world, where local changes may noticeably alter global characteristics. This is applied to a climate model, where global temperature is determined by an interplay between atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon stored by plant life. The latter can be released by forest fires, giving rise to significant changes of global conditions within short time.


Conference contributions | 2011

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes

Brunner T, Moradi F, Obenberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

Details


Conference contributions | 2011

Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units

Wopienka E. Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Biomass combustion technologies – state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture)

Obernberger I. Biomass combustion technologies - state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture), Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD simulation of biomass grate furnaces with a comprehensive 3D packed bed model

Mehrabian R, Stangl S, Scharler R, Obernberger I, Weissinger A. CFD simulation of biomass grate furnaces with a comprehensive 3D packed bed model, 25th German flame day 2011, 14th-15th of September 2011, Karlsruhe, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD simulations as efficient tool for the development and optimisation of small-scale biomass furnaces and stoves

Scharler R, Benesch C, Obernberger I. CFD simulations as efficient tool for the development and optimisation of small-scale biomass furnaces and stoves, 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2011, 6th-10th of June 2011, Berlin, Germany. p 4-12.

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD-Simulationen als innovatives Werkzeug für die Entwicklung und Optimierung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Kaminöfen

Scharler R, Benesch C, Obernberger I. CFD-Simulationen als innovatives Werkzeug für die Entwicklung und Optimierung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Kaminöfen, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Determination of annual efficiency and emission factors of small-scale biomass boiler

Schwarz M, Heckmann M, Lasselsberger L, Haslinger W. Determination of annual efficiency and emission factors of small-scale biomass boiler, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

Details

In the last decades certification tests of small-scale biomass systems have impressively shown the improvement of the state of the art. Though, steady state measurements represent results only foroptimal operation. In practice results differ due to varying operating conditions. Therefore, of a test stand measurement method to derive realistic annual system efficiencies and emission factors is developed. The method includes a heat loss model for thermal storages too. It can be used to test automatically fed biomass boiler, manually loaded biomass boilers and boiler / heat accumulator combinations. For the evaluation of the measurement data a calculation method based on mass flows was developed. The results of our experiments show that the newly developed method is a good tool to evaluate small-scale biomass boilers. With this method an easy and reliable instrument to determine annual system efficiencies and emission factors for realistic boiler operation is provided. The application of the method will prove that modern small-scale biomass combustion systems have the potential to significantly contribute to the reduction of air pollutants and to increase overall energy system efficiency.


Conference contributions | 2011

Development of biomass fired boilers with an advanced CFD model for ash deposit and aerosol formation

Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Development of biomass fired boilers with an advanced CFD model for ash deposit and aerosol formation, 9th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers 2011, 26th-29th of April 2011, Estoril, Portugal.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Highlights der Bioenergieforschung

Fercher E. Highlights der Bioenergieforschung, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion

Brunner T, Kelz J, Obernberger I, Javala P, Hirvonen M. Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels)

Jungmeier G, Lingitz A, Canella L, Haslinger W, Strasser C, Moser W. LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels), Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen

Meirhofer M, Ragossnig A, Pieber S, Sommer M. Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen, Waste-to-Resources 2011, 24th-27th of May 2011, Hannover, Germany.

Details

The processing of heterogeneous waste is a major challenge for waste treatment equipment used in mechanical-biological (MB) waste treatment plants. This conference contribution focuses on the technical feasibility and efficiency of different technologies for the processing of a heavy waste fraction from a MB-plant which contains a high portion of high caloric components. The aim is to meet the requirements for waste to be landfilled in Austria. Also economic considerations with regard to the implementation of an additional separation step and the resulting changes in the waste routing are discussed. The processing technologies looked at comprise sensor-based sorting technologies (NIR, X-ray transmission) as well as traditional mechanical density separation technologies such as a jigger and cross-flow air classification.


Conference contributions | 2011

Trennung heterogener Abfälle durch sensorgestützte Sortierung zur Optimierung materialspezifischer Abfallbehandlung

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Sommer M, Meirhofer M, Curtis A, Pomberger R. Trennung heterogener Abfälle durch sensorgestützte Sortierung zur Optimierung materialspezifischer Abfallbehandlung, Waste-to-Resources 2011, 24th-27th of May 2011, Hannover, Germany.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2011

Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

Zahirović S, Scharler R, Kilpinen P, Obernberger I. Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for the CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2011;15(1):61-87.

External Link

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler

Schulze K, Scharler R, Telian M, Obernberger I. Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Brooks L, Meirhofer M, Pomberger R, Curtis A. Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Austria. p 695-698.

Details

Heterogeneous wastes, which cannot be material-recycled easily are used for energetic utilization. Certain quality criteria need to be met in this context, addressing especially the chlorine content due to the product quality as well as to environmental and safety issues. In regard of current issues in climate policy concerning emission trading, also an increased biogenic content in these waste fractions is desirable. Therefore, experiments with a sensor-based sorting technology at pilot scale as well as large scale have been conducted to analyse the technical feasibility of this technology for its application on heterogeneous wastes to gain products with desired material and quality criteria. The results of pilot scale experiments show that the sensor-based sorting technology is generally technically feasible to gain waste fractions with the required characteristics, if the technology was adjusted to the specific waste stream. Due to restrictions during the large scale experiment a number of further issues need to be addressed in
further experiments to allow for a concluding evaluation of that treatment concept.


Conference contributions | 2010

Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers

Haslinger W, Heckmann M, Schmidl C, Schwarz M. Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers, 10. Industrieforum Pellets, 7th-8th of September 2010, Stuttgart, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig A, Pieber S, Brooks L, Fercher E. Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Österreich.

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