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Conference contributions | 2012

Produktentwicklung von Biomassekesseln – Rollenprüfstandstest für Biomassekessel kleiner Leistung

Haslinger W. Produktentwicklung von Biomassekesseln – Rollenprüfstandstest für Biomassekessel kleiner Leistung, Innovationsforum Ökoenergie-Cluster 2012, 18th of October 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Recent Gas sampling and analysis methods for the determination of condensable gas components in fuel gases and synthesis gases from pyrolysis and gasification

Neubauer Y, Kleinhappl M. Recent Gas sampling and analysis methods for the determination of condensable gas components in fuel gases and synthesis gases from pyrolysis and gasification, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1095-1096.

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A workshop on sampling and analysis of gas impurities (mainly condensables (tar)) in gases from thermochemical conversion processes was held in Berlin at the 19th EU BC+E. Here the outcomes are shortly summarized and the activities in the after course of the workshop are briefly discussed. An international working group formed to further discuss the important topics of analytics in these gas families was formed. Further ongoing and planned activities will be mentioned.


Conference contributions | 2012

Reflexions on the existing guideline (and EN) about the sampling and analysis of tar matter from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas

Zeisler J, Kleinhappl M, Martini S, Neubauer Y. Reflexions on the existing guideline (and EN) about the sampling and analysis of tar matter from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 884-897.

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In the last years sampling at various gasification plants has been performed at Bioenergy2020+. The equipment, which is based on the recommendations of the tar guideline, has been further developed and adjusted to specific needs. For an evaluation of the procedure different parts of the equipment were tested with a new developed gas-generating unit. Most effort has been performed at the absorption of BTXE-S and PAH in 2-propanol. Additionally new characterisation-methods for pyrolysis samples with SPE (Solid Phase Extraction) have been tested and a qualitative identification of main components could be achieved. Furthermore tests for stabilisation and storage of samples were done. The results of the investigations represent an ongoing optimisation-work with the aim of establishing an international working-group which will compile guidelines for sampling organic and inorganic components at gasification and pyrolysis plants with different new online and offline methods. The appendix delivers some useful data about the substances and dynamic precipitation in an investigated impinger step.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Rotary kiln pyrolysis of straw and fermentation residues in a 3 MW pilot plant – Influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolysis product performance

Kern S, Halwachs M, Kampichler G, Pfeifer C, Pröll T, Hofbauer H. Rotary kiln pyrolysis of straw and fermentation residues in a 3 MW pilot plant - Influence of pyrolysis temperature on pyrolysis product performance. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2012;97:1-10.

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The idea of co-firing biomass in an already existing coal-fired power plant could play a major contribution in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Huge amounts of unused biomass in terms of agricultural residues such as straw, which is a cheap and local feedstock, are often available. But due to the high amount of corrosive ash elements (K, Cl, etc.), the residues are usually not suitable for co-firing in a thermal power plant. Therefore, the feedstock is converted by low temperature pyrolysis into gaseous pyrolysis products and charcoal. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant located next to a coal-fired power plant near Vienna was set up in 2008. For the process, an externally heated rotary kiln reactor with a design fuel power of 3 MW is used which can handle about 0.6-0.8 t/h straw. The aim is to investigate the fundamentals for scale-up to the desired size for co-firing in a coal-fired power plant. In addition to the desired fuel for the process, which is wheat straw, a testing series for DDGS was also performed. The high amount of pyrolysis oil in the gas had positive effects on the heating value of the pyrolysis gas. Chemical efficiencies of this pyrolysis pilot plant of up to 67% for pyrolysis temperatures between 450°C and 600°C can be reached. The focus of this work is set on the pyrolysis products and their behavior at different pyrolysis temperatures as well as the performance of the pyrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Conference contributions | 2012

Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts

Martini S. Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts, 5th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts

Martini S. Sofc‐field tests with Biomass gasification derived product gas for the evaluation of stationary BIG‐SOFC‐CHP‐concepts, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Freiberg, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

State-of-the-art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems

Obernberger I. State-of-the-art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

State‐of‐the‐art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems

Mandl C, Obernberger I, Biedermann F. State‐of‐the‐art and assessment of filter technologies for residential biomass combustion systems, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 732-738.

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The objectives of the present study were to: (a) develop an appropriate estimation method for assessing the characteristic ash melting temperatures of different biomass fuels by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TEC) based on ash analysis data, (b) estimate the correlation between the results obtained from TEC and the experimentally received data for the melting temperatures using a TGA/DSC-method (thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry) and, (c) evaluate the applicability of the TEC and DSC methods as prediction tools for the melting behaviour of biomass ashes in relation to the conventional ash melting test according to DIN 51730. The results are presented for four selected biomass ash samples: straw, miscanthus, beech and bark (spruce). The agreement between the results obtained from TEC and experimental results (TGA/DSC and standard ash melting test) was reasonably good. For comparison between the experimental results and TEC regarding the deformation temperature it is recommended to utilize the temperature range between T15 and T30 estimated by TEC at 15 wt% and 30 wt% molten phase respectively. Differences between calculated melting temperatures T30 for straw (770°C) and bark (1,280°C) on the one side, and experimentally determined data on the other side are lower than 100°C. In the case of miscanthus and beech ash the prediction was with a deviation of around 200°C less precise. Flow temperatures measured as per standard test (DIN 51730) show generally a good agreement with the TEC fusion temperatures at 70 wt% of molten fraction (T70) for straw, miscanthus and bark ash. In case of beech ash is the TEC prediction of T70 (>1,600°C) moved to higher temperatures compared to experimental expected 1,380°C. The results of this study in combination with reliable databases and an appropriate calculation model, qualify the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations as a useful technique for a prediction of the ash melting behaviour including the assessment of characteristic melting temperatures.


Conference contributions | 2012

STATUS and FUTURE of bioSNG in EUROPE

Rauch R. STATUS and FUTURE of bioSNG in EUROPE, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Steigerung des Jahreswirkungsgrads von Pelletsheizungen

Schmidl C. Steigerung des Jahreswirkungsgrads von Pelletsheizungen, 12. Industrieforum Pellets 2012, 9th-10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Strategic Research Priorities for Biomass Technology

Haslinger W. Strategic Research Priorities for Biomass Technology, 4th Annual Meeting of the RHC-platform biomass panel 2012, 10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

System performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler

Aigenbauer S, Hartl M, Malenkovic I, Simetzberger A, Vverma VK, Schmidl C. System performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1320-1324.

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A pellet burner directly integrated into the solar storage provides heat and domestic hot water for small
residential applications in an environment-friendly way. The objective of this work was to evaluate the system
performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler in laboratory under transient test conditions. Furthermore, the type
test results according to ÖNORM EN 303-5 [1] of the last decade were compared with monitoring data of systems
with separated boiler and heat storage. The laboratory tests allowed finding relevant parameters and losses, which
influence the system performance. A developed computer simulation model shows the potential to optimize the
performance of the investigated boiler.


Conference contributions | 2012

The actual need of a guideline for sampling and analysis of chemical matter (not tars) from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas

Zeisler J, Kleinhappl M, Martini S, Neubauer Y. The actual need of a guideline for sampling and analysis of chemical matter (not tars) from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 919-925.

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Due to the increasing number of different online and offline methods and procedures for sampling at gasification and pyrolysis plants a comparison of the measured values is difficult. About the sampling of tars already a number of detailed guidelines and a common approach are established [2]. In terms of discrete chemical impurities the missing of a guideline for sampling at biomass¬ plants is an obstacle for implementing sampling systems in new plants or experimental assemblies. Nevertheless the knowledge is available at several institutions but it has to be collected. Within this paper the basic challenges of sampling are mentioned, the system at Bioenergy2020+ is explained in detail and about the parameters NH3, H2S & HCN useful results of optimisation are reported. This status should help to point out the need of a reliable library of methods. According the first systematisation of offline and online sampling respectively detection a table of application is proposed. The detailed knowledge for this will be treated and exchanged within an established working group which should lead to a guideline (at least methods library) for sampling of trace components as described.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

The positive effects of bed material coating on tar reduction in a dual fluidized bed gasifier

Kirnbauer F, Wilk V, Kitzler H, Kern S, Hofbauer H. The positive effects of bed material coating on tar reduction in a dual fluidized bed gasifier. Fuel. 2012;95:553-562.

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The utilization of biomass for the substitution of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in biomass steam gasification plants is a promising technology for the production of electricity, heat, and fuels for transportation. Experience from industrial scale dual fluidized bed steam gasification plants showed a modification of the bed material due to the interaction of the bed material (olivine) with biomass ash components and additives. In this paper the influence of bed material modification on the gasification properties of used olivine from an industrial scale plant in Güssing is compared with the case of fresh olivine. The trials were carried out under similar conditions in a pilot plant at the Vienna University of Technology. The pilot plant trials showed an increase in hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the product gas with the used bed material while the content of carbon monoxide in the product gas decreased. The exothermal water–gas shift reaction is enhanced by the used bed material, resulting in a lower energy demand for the gasification. Tar content was decreased by around 80% for tars detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the composition of the tar showed less components during the trial with used bed material.

The results obtained with the used bed material at the 100 kW pilot plant are in good agreement with those for the 8 MW industrial plant in Güssing, confirming good scale-up properties from the 100 kW plant to industrial scale plants.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Variation of Feedstock in a Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Gasifier ‐ Influence on Product Gas, Tar Content and Composition

Schmid JC, Wolfesberger U, Koppatz S, Pfeifer C, Hofbauer H. Variation of feedstock in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier-influence on product gas, tar content, and composition. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 2012;31(2):205-15.

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A steam blown dual fluidized bed gasification plant was used to yield a nitrogen (N 2) free product gas (synthesis gas) from various biomass fuels. In addition to the variation of process parameters like temperature, steam to carbon ratio, fluidization rate, and the influence of different bed materials, various feedstock inputs affected the generation of the product gas. This study focuses on the gasification of different biomass feedstock. The variation of biomass implies wood chips, wood pellets, sewage sludge pellets, and straw pellets. The chosen evaluated experimental results are all gained from the uniformly operated "classical" 100 kW "DUAL FLUID" gasifier at Vienna University of Technology at constant gasification temperatures between 800°C and 810°C. In the "classical" design, the gasification reactor is a bubbling fluidized bed. The composition and ash melting behavior of each feedstock is displayed, as well as the ranges of the product gas compositions generated. Beside the main gaseous product gas components, typical content ranges of dust and char are highlighted. The content and composition of tar in the product gas is discussed. Further it is possible to present gravimetrical and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry measured tar values. Not less than five significant component-groups of tar will also be outlined for each feedstock. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).


Conference contributions | 2012

Vergleichsanalyse der Vergasung eines biogen und fossil angereicherten EBS

Sommer M, Ragoßnig AM, Kleinhappl M. Vergleichsanalyse der Vergasung eines biogen und fossil angereicherten EBS, DepoTech 2012, 6th-9th of October 2012, Leoben, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Verwertung von Reststoffen aus der Lebensmittelproduktion zur Gewinnung von Prozessenergie.

Drosg B, Ortner M, Bochmann G. Verwertung von Reststoffen aus der Lebensmittelproduktion zur Gewinnung von Prozessenergie, Lebensmittel-Cluster Oberösterreich „ Strom - Wärme - Kälte - Wege zum energieeffizienteren Lebensmittelbetrieb“ 2012, 21th of March 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Zustandsschätzung einer Biomassefeuerungsanlage und deren modellbasierte Regelung

Seeber, R. Zustandsschätzung einer Biomassefeuerungsanlage und deren modellbasierte Regelung, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2012.

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Die Verbrennung fester Biomasse gewinnt als nachhaltige Form der Energienutzung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Dabei stellt die Forderung nach einem schadstoffarmen Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungsanlagen bei möglichst hohem Wirkungsgrad eine Herausforderung an deren Regelung dar. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung und Verbesserung eines existierenden, modellbasierten Regelungskonzepts, welches die Methode der Eingangs-Ausgangslinearisierung zur Regelung sowie einen Erweiterten Kalmanfilter zur Zustandsschätzung vorsieht. Die Arbeiten wurden in Kooperation mit dem Kompetenzzentrum Bioenergy 2020+ anhand einer Versuchsanlage (Flachschubrostfeuerung mit einer Kesselnennleistung von 180 kW) durchgeführt. Dabei lassen sich eine Reihe von Störeinflüssen identifizieren, unter anderem etwa die bei dieser Anlage besonders stark ausgeprägten Schwankungen des abgebauten Brennstoffs. Die geeignete Berücksichtigung dieser Störeinflüsse im Kalmanfilter durch Formfilter wird untersucht. Ebenso erfolgt die Modellierung von variablen Totzeiten und Sensordynamiken, die bei der Messung einzelner Größen auftreten, durch zusätzliche Sensormodelle. Auf Basis dieser Ergebnisse wird ein neuer Kalmanfilter vorgeschlagen und implementiert. Die auftretenden Störeinflüsse führen bei der exakt linearisierten Strecke zu einer Abweichung vom geforderten linearen Übertragungsverhalten. Daher wird auch der Regler dahingehend modifiziert, dass die vom Kalmanfilter rekonstruierten Störgrößen bei der Ermittlung des nichtlinearen Zustandsregelgesetzes verwendet werden. Das modifizierte Regelungskonzept wurde abschließend an der untersuchten Anlage implementiert und experimentell verifiziert. Dabei wurden gegenüber der ursprünglichen Regelung eine deutliche Verbesserung bei der Stabilisierung von Vorlauf- und Sekundärzonentemperatur sowie eine geringere Abweichung des Verbrennungsluftverhältnisses im Brennstoffbett vom vorgegebenen Sollwert erzielt.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2011

A carbon-cycle-based stochastic cellular automata climate model

Lichtenegger K, Schappacher W. A carbon-cycle-based stochastic cellular automata climate model. International Journal of Modern Physics C. 2011;22(6):607-621.

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In this paper a stochastic cellular automata model is examined, which has been developed to study a "small" world, where local changes may noticeably alter global characteristics. This is applied to a climate model, where global temperature is determined by an interplay between atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon stored by plant life. The latter can be released by forest fires, giving rise to significant changes of global conditions within short time.


Conference contributions | 2011

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes

Brunner T, Moradi F, Obenberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units

Wopienka E. Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Biomass combustion technologies – state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture)

Obernberger I. Biomass combustion technologies - state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture), Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD simulation of biomass grate furnaces with a comprehensive 3D packed bed model

Mehrabian R, Stangl S, Scharler R, Obernberger I, Weissinger A. CFD simulation of biomass grate furnaces with a comprehensive 3D packed bed model, 25th German flame day 2011, 14th-15th of September 2011, Karlsruhe, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD simulations as efficient tool for the development and optimisation of small-scale biomass furnaces and stoves

Scharler R, Benesch C, Obernberger I. CFD simulations as efficient tool for the development and optimisation of small-scale biomass furnaces and stoves, 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2011, 6th-10th of June 2011, Berlin, Germany. p 4-12.

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD-Simulationen als innovatives Werkzeug für die Entwicklung und Optimierung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Kaminöfen

Scharler R, Benesch C, Obernberger I. CFD-Simulationen als innovatives Werkzeug für die Entwicklung und Optimierung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Kaminöfen, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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