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Other Presentations | 2012

Experimentelle Entwicklung eines Pellet-Raumheizgerätes

Raab, A. Experimentelle Entwicklung eines Pellet-Raumheizgerätes, Bachelor Thesis, FH Oberösterreich, Wels, Österreich, 2012.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einem Gasflammenreaktor zur Charakterisierung der Gasphasenverbrennung in Biomasserostfeuerungen

Kamnig, H. Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einem Gasflammenreaktor zur Charakterisierung der Gasphasenverbrennung in Biomasserostfeuerungen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2012.

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 Ziel der Diplomarbeit war die Bereitstellung von Messdaten für die Entwicklung eines Gasphasenverbrennungsmodells, welches den niedrig-turbulenten Strömungsbereich und den Einfluss der Strähnenbildung auf den Mischungsfortschritt von partiell vorgemischten Flammen über dem Brennstoffbett von Biomasse-Rostfeuerungen abbildet. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Konstruktion und dem Bau eines Flammenreaktors und einer Gasverteilungsstation zur Erzeugung von kalten Strömungen ohne chemische Reaktion und partiell vorgemischten Flammen mit chemischer Reaktion, welche die niedrig-turbulenten Strömungen über dem Brennstoffbett in Biomasse Rostfeuerungen genähert abbilden sollen. Zur Untersuchung der auftretenden Gas- und Luftsträhnen und deren Einfluss auf den Mischungsfortschritt über dem Biomasse Brennstoffbett, wurde für den Versuchsaufbau ein Düsenkonzept zur Gas- und Luftverteilung verwendet. In kalten Strömungen sollen die Mischungseffekte niedrig turbulenter Strömungen sowie der Mischungsfortschritt aufgrund der Strähnenbildung, entkoppelt von chemischen Reaktionen, untersucht werden. In den Flammen gilt es zusätzliche Einflüsse, wie die Expansion des Gases und die chemischen Reaktionen, zu untersuchen. Im Rahmen dieser Diplomarbeit wurden im Flammenreaktor extraktive FTIR- und RGA-Spezieskonzentrationsmessung in kalten Strömungen und in Flammen sowie optische LDA-Gasgeschwindigkeitsmessungen in kalten Strömungen durchgeführt. Für die finalen Messungen wurden nur Gaskonzentrationsmessungen mittels FTIR und RGA durchgeführt und diskutiert, da die LDA-Messeinheit nicht mehr zur Verfügung stand. Die Messergebnisse in kalten Strömungen mit einem CO2/N2-Gasgemisch und einem Luftstrom, liefern rotationssymmetrische CO2- und O2-Konzentrationsprofile. Die Messergebnisse zeigen, dass der Mischungsfortschritt entlang der Strömungsrichtung weitgehend entkoppelt ist von den Gaseintrittsgeschwindigkeiten vGas=2 m/s bis vGas=4. Die Konzentrationsergebnisse der Messungen mit den CO2/N2/Luft-Gemischen konnten mittels einer Stoffbilanz erfolgreich geprüft werden. Die Messergebnisse in kalten Strömungen entsprechen bezüglich der Gasgeschwindigkeiten zwischen 2 und 4 m/s sowie mit den Reynoldszahlen zwischen 800 und 9000 den laminaren bis niedrig-turbulenten Strömungsbedingungen von partiell vorgemischten Flammen über dem Brennstoffbett in Biomasse Rostfeuerungen. Die Messergebnisse der Flammenmessungen mit einem CH4/Luft-Gasgemisch und einem Luftstrom, liefern mit RGA- und FTIR-Messungen nicht reproduzierbare Ergebnisse innerhalb der Flamme und weisen große Gasspeziesasymmetrien in der Flamme auf. Die Messergebnisse zeigen, dass die Gaseintrittsgeschwindigkeiten vGas=2 m/s bis vGas=4 mit dem Verbrennungsfortschritt von CH4 in Strömungsrichtung gekoppelt sind. Die Konzentrationsergebnisse der Flammenmessungen mit einem CH4/Luft-Gemisch konnten mit den vorhandenen Messwerten nicht erfolgreich mittels einer Stoffbilanz geprüft werden. Zusammengefasst liefen die Konzentrationsmessungen in kalter Strömung sehr gute Messergebnisse in Hinblick auf Strömungsstabilität, rotationssymmetrische Strömungsausbildung und Messgenauigkeit. Für Messungen in kalten Strömungen sind die Messverfahren mittels FTIR und RGA zur Konzentrationsmessung und das LDA-Messverfahren zur Gasgeschwindigkeitsmessung zu empfehlen. Die RGA- und FTIR-Konzentrationsmessungen in den Flammen liefern keine zufriedenstellenden Messergebnisse aufgrund von Flammenasymmetrien sowie dem Einfluss der extraktiven Probenahme mittels einer Probenahmelanze. Für Flammenmessungen im Reaktor sind berührungsfreie, optische Messverfahren mit einer hohen Messauflösung zu empfehlen. Durchlichtverfahren benötigen zwei optische Zugänge zum Messraum. Für die Anwendung von Durchlichtverfahren müsste der Flammenreaktor von einem auf zwei optische Zugänge umgebaut werden.  


Conference contributions | 2012

Frauen‐ und Familienförderung beginnt bei Männern – Systematisches Karenzmanagement für Mütter, Väter und das Unternehmen

Haslinger W. Frauen‐ und Familienförderung beginnt bei Männern – Systematisches Karenzmanagement für Mütter, Väter und das Unternehmen, Expertenforum K3 "Karenzmanagement macht Karriere" 2012, 9th of May 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Fuel indexes –a novel method for the evaluation of relevant combustion properties of new biomass fuels

Sommersacher P, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Fuel indexes –a novel method for the evaluation of relevant combustion properties of new biomass fuels, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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The increasing demand for biomass fuels leads to the introduction of new biomass fuels into the market. These new biomass fuels (e.g., wastes and residues from agriculture and the food industry, short rotation coppices, and energy crops) are usually not well-defined regarding their combustion behavior. Therefore, fuel characterization methods with a special focus on combustion-related problems (gaseous NOx, HCl, and SOx emissions, ash-melting behavior, and PM emissions) have to be developed. For this purpose, fuel indexes are an interesting option. Fuel indexes are derived from chemical fuel analyses and are checked and evaluated regarding their applicability by measurements performed at lab- and real-scale combustion plants for a large variety of fuels. They provide the possibilities for a pre-evaluation of combustion-relevant problems that may arise from the use of a new biomass fuel. A possible relation to describe the corrosion risk is, for instance, the molar 2S/Cl ratio. The N content in the fuel is an indicator for NOx emissions, and the sum of the concentrations of K, Na, Zn, and Pb in the fuel can give a prediction of the aerosol emissions, whereas the molar (K + Na)/[x(2S + Cl)] ratio provides a first indication regarding the potential for gaseous HCl and SOx emissions. The molar Si/K ratio can supply information about the K release from the fuel to the gas phase. The molar Si/(Ca + Mg) ratio can give indications regarding the ash-melting temperatures for P-poor fuels. For P-rich fuels, the (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio can be used for the same purpose. The fuel indexes mentioned can provide a first pre-evaluation of combustion-relevant properties of biomass fuels. Therefore, time-consuming and expensive combustion tests can partly be saved. The indexes mentioned are especially developed for grate combustion plants, because interactions of the bed material possible in fluidized-bed combustion systems are not considered.


Other Presentations | 2012

Gasaufbereitung für die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese

Pölzl, P. Gasaufbereitung für die Fischer-Tropsch-Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000

Haberl H, Kastner T, Schaffartzik A, Ludwiczek N, Erb K-. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000. Ecol Econ. 2012;84:66-73.

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Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing 'teleconnections' between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The 'embodied human appropriation of NPP' (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Conference contributions | 2012

High efficient industrial process carbon capture (CC) – Field tests

Martini S, Kleinhappl M, Zeisler J. High efficient industrial process carbon capture (CC) – Field tests, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1127-1131.

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In large scale industrial processes, such as iron production, or in gasification based process chains (coal/biomass to synthesis gas, fuel, or power, etc.), the separation of CO2 (Carbon Capture-CC) can lead to ecological and procedural benefits. Chemical absorption of CO2 is a well proved technology for CC with comparatively low electrical energy demand. However, the high heat demand, absorption kinetics, CO2 capacity and sorbent degradation are limiting factors for the industrial application. Further investigation and development of sorbent-solutions in relation to specific gas conditions are necessary for optimisation. For testing different sorbent-solutions a mobile test plant was designed and built up. Focus of this work was the evaluation of process key data for CC in blast furnace gas under real conditions. The tests have been carried out continuously up to 300 hours. Aqueous monoethanol-amine (MEA), diethanol-amine (DEA) and methyl-diethanol-amine (MDEA) solutions have been investigated. Detailed analyses of the process gas, analyses of used liquids (chemical properties, degradation products) and the examination of process data lead to further development in process design, control strategies for specific applications and give routes for an efficient implementation of CC to increase the benefit in the overall process chain.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

Jalava PI, Happo MS, Kelz J, Brunner T, Hakulinen P, Mäki-Paakkanen J, et al. Invitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies. Atmos Environ. 2012;50:24-35.

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Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM 1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM 1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati ® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic composition and inorganic ash composition affected the toxicological responses differently. In conclusion, combustion technology largely affects the particulate emissions and their toxic potential this being reflected in substantially larger responses in devices with incomplete combustion. These differences become emphasized when the large emission factors from old technology appliances are taken into account. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis

Sauciuc A, Abosteif Z, Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Schaub G, Dumitrescu L. Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Biomass Conversion. 2012;2(3):253-263.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) 2012, 3rd-6th of June 2012, Naples, Italy. p 979-804. (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove

Reichert G. Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove, Conference ”Dust measuring procedures for small biomass furnaces” 2012, 7th of November 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial

Martini S. Integrated carbon capture (CC), field tests and further perspectives in industrial, 5 th international Freiberg Conference on IGCC & XtL Technologies 2012, 21st-24th of May 2012, Leipzig, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification

Rauch R. Integration Aspects in the Next Generation of CHP Plants Based on Gasification, International Seminar on Gasification 2012, 18th-19th of October 2012, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese

Götz, F. Integration vom Hydroprocessing in die Fischer-Tropsch Synthese, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier, 3rd International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (iSGA-3) 2012, 16th of October 2012, Vancouver, Canada. (peer reviewed) (oral presentation)

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass

Schablitzky HW, Lichtscheidl J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass. Modern Applied Science. 2012;6(4):28-37.

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The present study describes the application of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes as a feedstock in a pilot-scale hydroprocessing unit at operating conditions very similar to industrial size hydrotreating plants of traditional refineries. The project focus on a future coprocessing of biowax/gasoil blends due to produce bio-products derived from lignocellulosic biomass: crack gases, naphtha, kerosene, diesel and a residual product. Hydro-processing plants operating at mild cracking conditions support the production of high amounts in middle distillates at reduced coke formation. Premium bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties are the main objective of the investigations. Various test runs with different hydrotreating catalysts have been conducted due to determine the influence of waxy feedstock on catalyst behavior and product distribution. Depending on the catalyst selected, the fixed bed reactor streamed by hydrogen operates under specified cracking condition defined by the following parameters: reactor temperature, hydrogen pressure and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). Test runs with selected catalysts - isodewaxing (IDW), hydro-desulphurization (HDS) and the catalytic deparaffination (CDP) catalyst - have been executed at constant process conditions in order to compare the product spectrum and properties of product groups. Highest amounts of bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties can be obtained with the IDW catalyst. This NiW- based catalyst with special additives generates cleaved and reshaped molecular fragments via skeletal isomerisation increasing the isoparaffin content of naphtha and middle distillates. Further investigations with this catalyst type have been executed due to determine the catalyst aging effect in a separate long term test run. The loss of cracking severity during operation of the catalyst can be observed by a steady decline in conversion. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as olefins and diolefines in the bio-feedstock support the formation of a coke layer on the catalyst surface resulting in reinforced deactivation. As the consequence naphtha and finally the crack gases and the kerosene fraction are shifted to higher molecular fragments increasing the diesel and residue yield. Physicochemical properties of the product groups obtained during the test run vary and especially the cold flow properties from the diesel and kerosene fraction degrade significant. Balancing the conversion decline of the catalyst in operation can be realized by increasing the reactor temperature and the hydrogen pressure, but the effect is time limited.
 


Conference contributions | 2012

Key-note lecture: Novel characterisation methods for biomass fuels and their application

Obernberger I. Key-note lecture: Novel characterisation methods for biomass fuels and their application, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Modern logwood stoves – Requirements, Development, Evaluation

Schmidl C, Aigenbauer S, Figl F, Haslinger W, Moser W, Verma VK. Modern logwood stoves – Requirements, Development, Evaluation, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2012

Odor, gaseous and PM 10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to central Europe

Kistler M, Schmidl C, Padouvas E, Giebl H, Lohninger J, Ellinger R, et al. Odor, gaseous and PM 10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to central Europe. Atmos Environ. 2012;51:86-93.

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In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as “common oak”), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, “garden biomass” such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets.

The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ−1 for CO; 89 mg MJ−1 for NOx, 311 mg MJ−1 for CxHy, 67 mg MJ−1 for particulate matter PM10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m−3. CO, CxHy and PM10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NOx – comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. CxHy and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NOx rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m−3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, CxHy and PM10. For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m−3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m−3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration.


Conference contributions | 2012

Operation Experience & Developments at Industrial Plants with Dual‐Fluid Gasification

Hofbauer H. Operation Experience & Developments at Industrial Plants with Dual‐Fluid Gasification, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Particulate matter emissions from small-scale biomass combustion systems – characterisation and primary measures for emission reduction

Brunner T. Particulate matter emissions from small-scale biomass combustion systems – characterisation and primary measures for emission reduction, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Prediction of biomass ash melting behaviour – correlation between the data obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA)

Evic N, Brunner T, Oberberger I. Prediction of biomass ash melting behaviour – correlation between the data obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 807-813.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plant

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig AM, Sommer M. Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plant, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 18th of September 2012, Florence, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plants

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig AM, Sommer M. Processing Options Of Heavy Fractions From MBT Plants, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 17th-19th of September 2012, Florence, Italy. (peer reviewed)

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Heavy fractions resulting from mechanical treatment stages of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants are posing very specific demands with regard to further treatment/disposal as they contain a high portion of inert material as well as a high portion of high calorific components. Based on the current Austrian legal situation (landfill ordinance: max. Higher Calorific Value (HCV) for MBT-fractions to be landfilled = 6,600 kJ/kg DM) this waste stream cannot be landfilled but must be thermally treated. In economic terms it is desirable to separate high calorific from inert waste components in order to allow for a material specific routing taking advantage of the difference in the costs for the downstream treatment / disposal.
In this conference contribution results of extensive processing experiments with the heavy fraction from the mechanical stage of the MBT plant of Umweltdienst Burgenland in Oberpullendorf, Austria, are presented. Experiments have been conducted with three different sensor-based automatic sorting systems (NIR – Multiplexer, NIR – Spectral Imaging, X-Ray transmission) as well as two density based processing technologies (wet treatment with a jigger, dry treatment with a cross flow air separation device). In addition a rotary shredder, which allows selective crushing, followed by screening has been investigated.
The performance of the processing options have been evaluated by characterizing the resulting product streams by means of manual sorting in order to evaluate purity and yield achieved by the respective treatment options. In addition to that chemical and physical parameters relevant for further treatment / disposal steps for the resulting product streams have been analysed. The inert fraction has been evaluated regarding the landfilling on a mass waste landfill on one hand and on a C&D waste landfill on the other hand. The high calorific product stream has been evaluated with regard to its thermal utilization.
Complementing the technical evaluation of the processing options an economical assessment of the processing options looked at including the economical implications of the resulting changes in the routing of the waste streams has been conducted.


Conference contributions | 2012

Produktentwicklung von Biomassekesseln – Rollenprüfstandstest für Biomassekessel kleiner Leistung

Haslinger W. Produktentwicklung von Biomassekesseln – Rollenprüfstandstest für Biomassekessel kleiner Leistung, Innovationsforum Ökoenergie-Cluster 2012, 18th of October 2012, Linz, Austria.

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