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Conference contributions | 2012

Verwertung von Reststoffen aus der Lebensmittelproduktion zur Gewinnung von Prozessenergie.

Drosg B, Ortner M, Bochmann G. Verwertung von Reststoffen aus der Lebensmittelproduktion zur Gewinnung von Prozessenergie, Lebensmittel-Cluster Oberösterreich „ Strom - Wärme - Kälte - Wege zum energieeffizienteren Lebensmittelbetrieb“ 2012, 21th of March 2012, Linz, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Zustandsschätzung einer Biomassefeuerungsanlage und deren modellbasierte Regelung

Seeber, R. Zustandsschätzung einer Biomassefeuerungsanlage und deren modellbasierte Regelung, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2012.

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Die Verbrennung fester Biomasse gewinnt als nachhaltige Form der Energienutzung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Dabei stellt die Forderung nach einem schadstoffarmen Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungsanlagen bei möglichst hohem Wirkungsgrad eine Herausforderung an deren Regelung dar. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung und Verbesserung eines existierenden, modellbasierten Regelungskonzepts, welches die Methode der Eingangs-Ausgangslinearisierung zur Regelung sowie einen Erweiterten Kalmanfilter zur Zustandsschätzung vorsieht. Die Arbeiten wurden in Kooperation mit dem Kompetenzzentrum Bioenergy 2020+ anhand einer Versuchsanlage (Flachschubrostfeuerung mit einer Kesselnennleistung von 180 kW) durchgeführt. Dabei lassen sich eine Reihe von Störeinflüssen identifizieren, unter anderem etwa die bei dieser Anlage besonders stark ausgeprägten Schwankungen des abgebauten Brennstoffs. Die geeignete Berücksichtigung dieser Störeinflüsse im Kalmanfilter durch Formfilter wird untersucht. Ebenso erfolgt die Modellierung von variablen Totzeiten und Sensordynamiken, die bei der Messung einzelner Größen auftreten, durch zusätzliche Sensormodelle. Auf Basis dieser Ergebnisse wird ein neuer Kalmanfilter vorgeschlagen und implementiert. Die auftretenden Störeinflüsse führen bei der exakt linearisierten Strecke zu einer Abweichung vom geforderten linearen Übertragungsverhalten. Daher wird auch der Regler dahingehend modifiziert, dass die vom Kalmanfilter rekonstruierten Störgrößen bei der Ermittlung des nichtlinearen Zustandsregelgesetzes verwendet werden. Das modifizierte Regelungskonzept wurde abschließend an der untersuchten Anlage implementiert und experimentell verifiziert. Dabei wurden gegenüber der ursprünglichen Regelung eine deutliche Verbesserung bei der Stabilisierung von Vorlauf- und Sekundärzonentemperatur sowie eine geringere Abweichung des Verbrennungsluftverhältnisses im Brennstoffbett vom vorgegebenen Sollwert erzielt.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2011

A carbon-cycle-based stochastic cellular automata climate model

Lichtenegger K, Schappacher W. A carbon-cycle-based stochastic cellular automata climate model. International Journal of Modern Physics C. 2011;22(6):607-621.

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In this paper a stochastic cellular automata model is examined, which has been developed to study a "small" world, where local changes may noticeably alter global characteristics. This is applied to a climate model, where global temperature is determined by an interplay between atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon stored by plant life. The latter can be released by forest fires, giving rise to significant changes of global conditions within short time.


Conference contributions | 2011

Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes

Brunner T, Moradi F, Obenberger I. Advanced biomass fuel characterisation by the application of dedicated fuel indexes, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units

Wopienka E. Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Biomass combustion technologies – state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture)

Obernberger I. Biomass combustion technologies - state-of-the-art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture), Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD simulation of biomass grate furnaces with a comprehensive 3D packed bed model

Mehrabian R, Stangl S, Scharler R, Obernberger I, Weissinger A. CFD simulation of biomass grate furnaces with a comprehensive 3D packed bed model, 25th German flame day 2011, 14th-15th of September 2011, Karlsruhe, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD simulations as efficient tool for the development and optimisation of small-scale biomass furnaces and stoves

Scharler R, Benesch C, Obernberger I. CFD simulations as efficient tool for the development and optimisation of small-scale biomass furnaces and stoves, 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2011, 6th-10th of June 2011, Berlin, Germany. p 4-12.

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Conference contributions | 2011

CFD-Simulationen als innovatives Werkzeug für die Entwicklung und Optimierung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Kaminöfen

Scharler R, Benesch C, Obernberger I. CFD-Simulationen als innovatives Werkzeug für die Entwicklung und Optimierung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen und Kaminöfen, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Determination of annual efficiency and emission factors of small-scale biomass boiler

Schwarz M, Heckmann M, Lasselsberger L, Haslinger W. Determination of annual efficiency and emission factors of small-scale biomass boiler, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

Details

In the last decades certification tests of small-scale biomass systems have impressively shown the improvement of the state of the art. Though, steady state measurements represent results only foroptimal operation. In practice results differ due to varying operating conditions. Therefore, of a test stand measurement method to derive realistic annual system efficiencies and emission factors is developed. The method includes a heat loss model for thermal storages too. It can be used to test automatically fed biomass boiler, manually loaded biomass boilers and boiler / heat accumulator combinations. For the evaluation of the measurement data a calculation method based on mass flows was developed. The results of our experiments show that the newly developed method is a good tool to evaluate small-scale biomass boilers. With this method an easy and reliable instrument to determine annual system efficiencies and emission factors for realistic boiler operation is provided. The application of the method will prove that modern small-scale biomass combustion systems have the potential to significantly contribute to the reduction of air pollutants and to increase overall energy system efficiency.


Conference contributions | 2011

Development of biomass fired boilers with an advanced CFD model for ash deposit and aerosol formation

Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Development of biomass fired boilers with an advanced CFD model for ash deposit and aerosol formation, 9th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers 2011, 26th-29th of April 2011, Estoril, Portugal.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Highlights der Bioenergieforschung

Fercher E. Highlights der Bioenergieforschung, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion

Brunner T, Kelz J, Obernberger I, Javala P, Hirvonen M. Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels)

Jungmeier G, Lingitz A, Canella L, Haslinger W, Strasser C, Moser W. LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels), Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen

Meirhofer M, Ragossnig A, Pieber S, Sommer M. Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen, Waste-to-Resources 2011, 24th-27th of May 2011, Hannover, Germany.

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The processing of heterogeneous waste is a major challenge for waste treatment equipment used in mechanical-biological (MB) waste treatment plants. This conference contribution focuses on the technical feasibility and efficiency of different technologies for the processing of a heavy waste fraction from a MB-plant which contains a high portion of high caloric components. The aim is to meet the requirements for waste to be landfilled in Austria. Also economic considerations with regard to the implementation of an additional separation step and the resulting changes in the waste routing are discussed. The processing technologies looked at comprise sensor-based sorting technologies (NIR, X-ray transmission) as well as traditional mechanical density separation technologies such as a jigger and cross-flow air classification.


Conference contributions | 2011

Trennung heterogener Abfälle durch sensorgestützte Sortierung zur Optimierung materialspezifischer Abfallbehandlung

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Sommer M, Meirhofer M, Curtis A, Pomberger R. Trennung heterogener Abfälle durch sensorgestützte Sortierung zur Optimierung materialspezifischer Abfallbehandlung, Waste-to-Resources 2011, 24th-27th of May 2011, Hannover, Germany.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2011

Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

Zahirović S, Scharler R, Kilpinen P, Obernberger I. Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for the CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2011;15(1):61-87.

External Link

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler

Schulze K, Scharler R, Telian M, Obernberger I. Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Brooks L, Meirhofer M, Pomberger R, Curtis A. Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Austria. p 695-698.

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Heterogeneous wastes, which cannot be material-recycled easily are used for energetic utilization. Certain quality criteria need to be met in this context, addressing especially the chlorine content due to the product quality as well as to environmental and safety issues. In regard of current issues in climate policy concerning emission trading, also an increased biogenic content in these waste fractions is desirable. Therefore, experiments with a sensor-based sorting technology at pilot scale as well as large scale have been conducted to analyse the technical feasibility of this technology for its application on heterogeneous wastes to gain products with desired material and quality criteria. The results of pilot scale experiments show that the sensor-based sorting technology is generally technically feasible to gain waste fractions with the required characteristics, if the technology was adjusted to the specific waste stream. Due to restrictions during the large scale experiment a number of further issues need to be addressed in
further experiments to allow for a concluding evaluation of that treatment concept.


Conference contributions | 2010

Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers

Haslinger W, Heckmann M, Schmidl C, Schwarz M. Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers, 10. Industrieforum Pellets, 7th-8th of September 2010, Stuttgart, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig A, Pieber S, Brooks L, Fercher E. Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Österreich.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Challenges and requirements for the technical development of pellet heating systems.

Haslinger W, Schmidl C. Challenges and requirements for the technical development of pellet heating systems, 10. Industrieforum Pellets 2010, 7th-8th of September 2010, Stuttgart, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Development of process routes for synthetic biofuels from biomass (BTL)

Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Development of process routes for synthetic biofuels from biomass (BTL), 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3rd-7th May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1829-1833.

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In Güssing a nearly nitrogen free product gas can be provided by the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system. The main components of the product gas are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). A Fischer – Tropsch (FT-) trial plant uses the product gas components H2 and CO in an exothermic, catalytic reaction to produce hydrocarbon chains. Catalysts based on iron and cobalt are used for the synthesis. In Güssing a slurry reactor is used for low temperature FT – synthesis. The main parts of the plant are the gas cleaning section, the gas compression section, the FT – slurry reactor and the product separation section. In the year 2008 eight experiments with a catalyst based on iron and from April to July 2009 ten experiments with a catalyst based on cobalt were done. Over 1400 operating hours were reached and approximately 170 kg of FT – raw product was produced. The product of the experiments with cobalt catalyst was split into the fractions naphtha, diesel and waxes by vacuum distillation. The long chain waxes of the distillation were used in a hydro – treater to convert them to diesel.


Conference contributions | 2010

Efficient biomass utilisation by polygeneration processes - Production of hydrogen, electricity and heat

Mayer T. Efficient biomass utilisation by polygeneration processes - Production of hydrogen, electricity and heat, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

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A polygeneration process is about to be implemented at the biomass gasification plant in Oberwart, Austria. Apart from conventional heat and electricity production, product gas obtained from steam gasification of wood chips is used for production of hydrogen. A membrane separation process was chosen for this application. Meeting the requirements of robustness and simplicity are benefits of this technology, however, maximizing of purity and output of hydrogen is not given highest priority. Simulation results show the gas compositions of both permeate and retentate stream as a function of different membrane stage-cuts. Basically high hydrogen content in the permeate stream can be achieved, but only with the drawback of low stage-cuts. Moreover, the trade-off between hydrogen purity and hydrogen recovery as well as the influence of the operating pressure on the purity are illustrated.


Conference contributions | 2010

Evaluating the Transient Behaviour of Biomass Based Micro-CHP Systems - Steam Piston Engine and Integrated Thermoelectric Power Generation

Friedl G, McCarry A, Aigenbauer S, Moser W, Haslinger W. Evaluating the Transient Behaviour of Biomass Based Micro-CHP Systems - Steam Piston Engine and Integrated Thermoelectric Power Generation, 18th European Biomass Conference 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1271-1282.

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