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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Bioresource Technology. August 2017;237: 39-46.

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Conference Papers | 2017

An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber

Loipersböck J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Scientific Journals | 2017

Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst.

Krycaa J, Priščák J, Łojewskac J, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2018, 346: 113-119.

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Substitution of fossil fuels for production of electricity, heat, fuels for transportation and chemicals can be realized using biomass steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB).

Interaction between biomass ash and bed material in a fluidized bed leads to transformation of the bed particle due to enrichment of components from the biomass ash resulting in the development of ash layers on the bed particle surface. These ash-rich particle layers enhance the catalytic activity of the bed material regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the reduction of tars.

The water-gas-shift reaction at conditions typical for dual fluidized bed biomass gasification at a temperature of 870 °C was investigated. Diffusion and heat transfer limitations were minimized using a lab-scale experimental set-up consisting of a gas mixing section and a quartz glass reactor in which the catalyst is investigated.

 

 

 


Conference Papers | 2017

Ash and bed material research in dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in lab- and industrial-scale

Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Ash and bed material research in dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in lab- and industrial-scale. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Assessment of correlations between tar and product gas composition in dual fluidized bed steam gasification for online tar prediction.

Benedikt F, Kuba M, Schmid JC, Müller S, Hofbauer H. Assessment of correlations between tar and product gas composition in dual fluidized bed steam gasification for online tar prediction. Applied Energy 2019;238:1138-1149.

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Thermochemical conversion of biomass feedstock via dual fluidized bed steam gasification is a well-proven technology used to produce a medium calorific product gas for various applications in the energy or transportation sector or for chemical syntheses. At unfavorable gasification conditions, undesirable high amounts of tar, which are aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the product gas. High tar contents are a major problem, and they lead to uneconomic operation due to sharply diminished quality of product gas or unexpected plant shut downs due to fouling of the product gas coolers. Currently, tar content is measured with a discontinuous wet-chemical analysis method, which needs several hours of sample preparation to receive the final tar content. The aim of this study is to establish valid correlations between online measured permanent gas components in the product gas and its tar content. The results show that hydrogen, methane, and ethene concentrations are strongly related to the tar content in the product gas, while the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide content did not show a clear correlation. Using these correlations with online measured gas components provides the possibility of a direct and prompt response of a plant operator in case of unfavorable gasification conditions. Additionally, an optimization of the plant operation can be conducted and thereby, the operation hours and, consequently, the economic efficiency are improved.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Behavior of GCMS tar components in a water gas shift unit operated with tar-rich product gas from an industrial scale dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant

Kraussler M, Binder M, Hofbauer H. Behavior of GCMS tar components in a water gas shift unit operated with tar-rich product gas from an industrial scale dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 1 March 2017;7(1): 69-79.

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Other Presentations | 2017

Bidirektionale Wärmenetze: Regelung, Energiemanagement, Potenzial

Lichtenegger K, Leitner A, Moser A, Muschick D, Höftberger E, Gölles M. Bidirektionale Wärmenetze: Regelung, Energiemanagement, Potenzial. Workshop auf der Central European Biomass Conference 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous wastes with coal

Onenc S, Retschitzegger S, Evic N, Kienzl N. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous waste with coal. ATHENS 2017 5th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management (Poster). June 2017, Athens, Greece.

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This study presents combustion behavior and emission results obtained for different fuels: poultry litter (PL) and its char (PLC), scrap tires (ST) and its char (STC) and blends of char/lignite (PLC/LIG and STC/LIG). The combustion parameters and emissions were investigated via a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method and experiments in a lab-scale reactor. Fuel indexes were used for the prediction of high temperature corrosion risks and slagging potentials of the fuels used. The addition of chars to lignite caused a lowering of the combustion reactivity (anti-synergistic effect). There was a linear correlation between the NOx emissions and the N content of the fuel. The form of S and the concentrations of alkali metals in the fuel had a strong effect on the extent of SO2 emissions. The use of PL and PLC in blends reduced SO2 emissions and sulphur compounds in the fly ash. The 2S/Cl ratio in the fuel showed that only PLC and STC/PLC would show a risk of corrosion during combustion. The ratio of basic to acidic oxides in fuel indicated that ST, STC and STC/LIG have low slagging potential. The molar (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio, which was used for PL, PLC and PLC containing blends, showed that the ash melting temperatures of these fuels would be higher than 1000 °C.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characteristics of adapted hydrogenotrophic community during biomethanation

Rachbauer L, Beyer R, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Characteristics of adapted hydrogenotrophic community during biomethanation. Science of The Total Environment. 1 October 2017;595: 912-919.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by Synechocystis salina from digestate supernatant

Kovalcik A, Meixner K, Mihalic M, Zeilinger W, Fritz I, Fuchs W, Kucharczyk P, Stelzer F, Drosg B. Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by Synechocystis salina from digestate supernatant. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 1 September 2017;102: 497-504.

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Other publication | 2017

Clean Air by Biomass - Demonstration of clean and efficient combustion of biomass

Klauser F, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Weissinger A. Clean Air by Biomass - Demonstration of clean and efficient combustion of biomass. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Other publication | 2017

CleanAir by Biomass - Status Quo Analysis of the Model Region

Klauser F, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Weissinger A, Haslinger W, Stressler H. CleanAir by Biomass - Status Quo Analysis of the Model Region. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

CO/CO2 Ratio in biomass char oxidation

Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Shiehnejadhesar A, Mehrabian R, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. CO/CO2 Ratio in biomass char oxidation. INFUB 2017, 11th European Conference on Industrial Furnace and Boilers. 18-21 April 2017, Albufeira, Portugal.

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The CO/CO2 release ratio obtained during char combustion of single biomass particles has been analysed in this work experimentally and by modelling. Experiments have been conducted with spruce, straw and Miscanthus pellets at different temperatures. Furthermore, these experiments have been modelled with a single particle model coupled with a CFD model of the single particle reactor. The results show that the CO/CO2 ratio strongly depends on the feedstock, being lower for spruce than for straw or Miscanthus. Furthermore, the most commonly employed correlations for this ratio in literature are not adequate, as they either under- or over-predict it.


Other publication | 2017

Comparison of selected firelighters for stoves from renewable and fossil fuels in terms of gaseous emissons

Matschegg D, Kirchhof JM, Golicza L, Schwabl M, Schmidl C. Comparison of selected firelighters for stoves from renewable and fossil fuels in terms of gaseous emissons. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

CPFD simulations of an industrial-sized dual fluidized bed steam gasification system of biomass with 8 MW fuel input

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. CPFD simulations of an industrial-sized dual fluidized bed steam gasification system of biomass with 8 MW fuel input. Applied Energy. 15 March 2017;190: 408-420.

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Dual fluidized bed (DFB) systems for biomass gasification consist of two connected fluidized beds with a circulating bed material in between. Inside such reactor systems, rough conditions occur due to the high temperatures and the movement of the bed material. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are a useful tool for investigating fluid dynamics inside such a reactor system. In this study, an industrial-sized DFB system was simulated with the commercial code CPFD Barracuda. The DFB system is part of the combined heat and power (CHP) plant at Güssing, situated in Austria, and has a total fuel input of 8 MWth. The model was set up according to geometry and operating data which allows a realistic description of the hot system in the simulation environment. Furthermore, a conversion model for the biomass particles was implemented which covers the drying and devolatilization processes. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered. Since drag models have an important influence on fluidization behavior, four drag models were tested. It was found that the EMMS drag model fits best, with an error of below 20%, whereas the other drag models produced much larger errors. Based on this drag law, further simulations were conducted. The simulation model correctly predicts the different fluidization regimes and pressure drops in the reactor system. It is also able to predict the compositions of the product and flue gas, as well as the temperatures inside the reactor, with reasonable accuracy. Due to the results obtained, Barracuda seems suitable for further investigations regarding the fluid mechanics of such reactors.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Cyanobacterial PHA Production—Review of Recent Advances and a Summary of Three Years’ Working Experience Running a Pilot Plant

Troschl C, Meixner K, Drosg B. Cyanobacterial PHA Production—Review of Recent Advances and a Summary of Three Years’ Working Experience Running a Pilot Plant. Bioengineering. 28 March 2017;4(2), 26.

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Scientific Journals | 2017

Development and experimental validation of a water gas shift kinetic model for Fe-/Cr-based catalysts processing product gas from biomass steam gasification.

Kraussler M, Hofbauer H. Development and experimental validation of a water gas shift kinetic model for Fe-/Cr-based catalysts processing product gas from biomass steam gasification. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. Volume 7, Issue 2, 1 June 2017, Pages 153-165

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Effect of draught conditions and ignition technique on combustion performance of firewood roomheaters

Reichert G, Hartmann H, Haslinger W, Öhler H, Mack R, Schmidl C, Schön C, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Hochenauer C. Effect of draught conditions and ignition technique on combustion performance of firewood roomheaters. Renewable Energy. 1 May 2017;105: 547-560.

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Firewood roomheaters are popular, widespread and important for reaching European CO2 emission targets. Since they contribute significantly to local air pollution, they have to be optimized towards minimal emission release, especially in real-life operation. Draught conditions and user behavior, particularly the ignition technique, significantly affect the emission and efficiency performance of firewood roomheaters. This study assessed the effects of the respective parameters experimentally. The results revealed a clear correlation between draught conditions and thermal efficiency. Increased draught conditions up to 48 Pa significantly decreased thermal efficiency by 6%–11% absolutely. However, for gaseous emissions no clear trend was observed. Accordingly, CO and OGC emissions increased at higher draught conditions for one tested roomheater by 30% and 60%, but decreased for two other tested roomheaters by 13%–45%. For PM emissions no effect of increased draught conditions was evident. Top-down ignition technique did not lead to a significant decrease of PM emissions compared to bottom-up ignition. In contrast, bottom-up ignition led to best thermal efficiencies. The use of either spruce or beech as kindling material revealed no significant relevance for the ignition performance.


Conference contributions | 2017

Effizienzsteigerung und Optimierung des Zusammenspiels von Scheitholzkessel, Pufferspeicher und Solaranlage durch die Verwendung mathematischer Modelle

Schulz J, Zemann C, Gölles M. Effizienzsteigerung und Optimierung des Zusammenspiels von Scheitholzkessel, Pufferspeicher und Solaranlage durch die Verwendung mathematischer Modelle. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2017

Emission factor assessment for two firewood stoves in the autumn or spring season

Sturmlechner R, Stressler H, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Carlon E, Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Weissinger A. Emission factor assessment for two firewood stoves in the autumn or spring season. 25th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution. 25-27 April 2017.

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This study analyses the emission factors of two firewood room heaters under testing conditions which emulate real life operation. A 6.5 kW stove with low heat storage capacity and high leakage rate (stove A) is compared with an 8 kW air-tight stove with high heat storage capacity (stove B). Thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide (CO) and organic gaseous compound (OGC) emissions, as well as the thermal heat losses (THL) during cool down phase were investigated in a series of laboratory tests. Furthermore, the influence of closing the air supply dampers at the end of the heating cycle was evaluated. Test results for the whole test cycle (including cool down phase) showed that stove A had CO emissions of 2633 mg/MJOutput and OGC emissions of 203 mg/MJOutput, while stove B had CO emissions of 2408 mg/MJOutput and OGC emissions of 109 mg/MJOutput, when air dampers were closed. It was also found that user behaviour has a critical influence on the stoves’ performance. Closing the air supply dampers at the end of the stove operation improved the efficiency by up to 5.0 percentage points. Furthermore, the duration of the cool down phase increased, as well as CO and OGC emissions decreased. As a matter of fact, measures to improve the user behaviour as for example user trainings and accurate manuals are of major importance in order to decrease emissions and increase efficiency of domestic heating appliances. Moreover, real life emission factors of other technologies should be established in order to develop a database which can be applied in air quality dispersion models.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Environmental trade-offs between residential oil-fired and wood pellet heating systems: forecast scenarios for Austria until 2030

Karner K, Kristöfel C, Enigl M, Strasser C, Schmid E. Environmental trade-offs between residential oil-fired and wood pellet heating systems: forecast scenarios for Austria until 2030. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. December 2017;80: 868-879.

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Conference contributions | 2017

ErgoS – Energierückgewinnung durch offene Sorption für Biomassefeuerungsanlagen

Höftberger E, Riepl R, Hebenstreit B, Golicza L, Paar EK, Goritschnig M, Zweiler R, Hochenauer C. ErgoS – Energierückgewinnung durch offene Sorption für Biomassefeuerungsanlagen. Güssing 17 Konferenz. March 2017, Güssing, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Estimation of binary diffusion coefficients in supercritical water - A mini review

Kraft S, Vogel F. Estimation of binary diffusion coefficients in supercritical water - A mini review. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 26 April 2017;56(16): 4847-4855.

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Diffusion coefficients of various solutes in supercritical water, which were either measured or retrieved from Molecular Dynamics simulations, were reviewed. Diffusion coefficients of molecules relevant for supercritical water processes were calculated with correlations reported in the literature and compared to the values of reference data. For conditions well above the critical point of water the simple Stokes-Einstein equation predicts the diffusion coefficients with an accuracy better than 20%. For conditions near the critical point the Wilke-Chang correlation gives the most accurate results. Diffusion coefficients for typical molecules occurring in supercritical water processes such as O2, N2, CO, CO2, or CH4 are estimated to be in the range of 60 · 10⁻⁹ m²/s at 673 K and 30 MPa. For H2, for which no experimental data are available, much higher diffusion coefficients in the range of 250 · 10⁻⁹ m²/s seem plausible. The data set of binary diffusion coefficients in supercritical water, either determined experimentally or by Molecular Dynamics simulations, should be extended significantly to include more solutes, as well as higher temperatures and pressures.
 


Conference contributions | 2017

Evaluation of the Combustion Behaviour of Straw, Poplar and Maize in a Small-Scale Biomass Boiler

Kelz J, Zemann C, Muschick D, Krenn O, Hofmeister G, Weissinger A, Gölles M. & Hochenauer C. Evaluation of the Combustion Behaviour of Straw, Poplar and Maize in a Small-Scale Biomass Boiler. Proceedings 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 12-15 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden. p. 1958-1966

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In order to evaluate the combustion behaviour of new biomass feedstocks such as short rotation coppice (poplar wood chips), fuels from agriculture (wheat straw pellets) and biomass residues (maize spindle grits), comprehensive test runs investigating both particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions were performed. A commercially available small-scale biomass boiler, especially designed to enable high fuel flexibility, was used for this evaluation. The combustion behaviour was determined for various boiler load conditions and primary air ratios while maintaining a constant total air ratio. Based on wet chemical analyses of the fuels, fuel indexes were calculated to deliver primary information on the combustion behaviour to be expected. During the test runs appropriate operating conditions were determined for these new biomass feedstocks in order to optimise combustion parameters and to minimise PM and gaseous emissions as well as to inhibit ash related problems (slagging, ash deposit formation and corrosion). The optimisation of operating conditions by primary measures showed a big potential for a stable boiler operation combined with reduced emissions. The findings provide the basis for a further development of combustion systems as well as control systems for the combustion of new biomass feedstocks.


Conference contributions | 2017

GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies

Feldmeier S, Wopienka E, Schwarz M. GrateAdvance - Advanced adjustable grate solutions for future fuel flexible biomass combustion technologies. 5th Central European Biomass Conference, Workshop Highlights of Bioenergy Research 2017 (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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