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Conference contributions | 2010

Gas Cleaning and Treatment of product gas of a dual fluidised bed gasifier for CHP and synthesis applications

Rauch R. Gas Cleaning and Treatment of product gas of a dual fluidised bed gasifier for CHP and synthesis applications, SNG 2010, 30th of June-1st of July 2010, Concepcion, Chile.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Gasification of residues and waste wood in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Kitzler H, Hofbauer H. Gasification of residues and waste wood in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

Details

Because of the limited resources of fossil fuels the efficient use of renewable energy is gaining importance. Renewable energy from biomass reduces CO2 emissions, which is a necessity to protect the global climate. In the dual fluidised bed steam gasifier wood chips are converted to heat, power and other products very successfully. This work presents alternative feedstocks for this process: biomass wastes, such as waste wood, bark and reed. Waste wood and bark have been gasified successfully and first results of these experiments in the pilot plant are presented in this paper. It has been assessed that reed is also an interesting feedstock suitable for the use in fluidised bed gasifiers.


Conference contributions | 2010

Grid autarchy of automated pellets combustion systems by the means of thermoelectric generators

Höfteberger E, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Friedl G, Haslinger W. Grid autarchy of automated pellets combustion systems by the means of thermoelectric generators, Thermoelectrics goes Automotive 2010, 9th-10th of December 2010, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Hydroprocessing of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes to 2nd generation biofuels

Schablitzky H, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Hydroprocessing of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes to 2nd generation biofuels, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Deutschland.

Details

Upgrading of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) biowaxes to second-generation biofuels via hydroprocessing is the final
step for increasing the fuel amount of the overall biomass conversion route: gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, FT synthesis, and hydroprocessing. The typical FT product portfolio consists of high molecular weight paraffinic waxes as the main product and FT fuels in the diesel and naphtha boiling range. OMV's objective and contribution to the project focus on achieving coprocessing of FT biowaxes with fossil feedstock using existing hydrotreating plants of crude oil refineries. Various test runs have been examined with a conventional refining catalyst under mild conditions (380–390°C, 5.8 MPa; WHSV, 0.7–1.3 h−1) in a pilot plant. Pure FT biowax is converted to gases, fuels, and an oil/waxy residue in a fixed-bed reactor with a porous catalyst layer technology. The presence of hydrogen in the reaction chamber reduces the fast deactivation of the catalyst caused by the formation of a coke layer around the catalyst particle surface and saturates cracked hydrocarbon fragments. Another approach is the creation of synthetic biodiesel components with excellent fuel properties for premium fuel
application. Basically, premium diesel fuel differs from standard diesel quality by cetane number and cold flow
properties. Hydroprocessed synthetic biodiesel (HPFT diesel) has compared to conventional diesel advantages in many aspects. Depending on the catalyst selected, premium diesel quality can be obtained by shifting cold flow
operability properties of HPFT fuels to a range capable even under extreme cold conditions. In addition, a highquality kerosene fraction is obtained to create bio jet fuels with an extremely deep freezing point, as low as −80°C. The isomerization degree, as well as the carbon number distribution of high paraffinic profile, and the branching degree have a major impact on the cold flow properties and cetane number. FT diesel has, compared to HPFT diesel, a slightly higher derived cetane number (DCN>83) and a cloud point of −9°C, whereas HPFT diesel reaches values as low as −60°C. Although the HPFT naphtha obtained consists of high amounts of isoparaffins, the RON/ MON values are comparable to fossil straight-run naphtha. The reason is that the branching degree of isoparaffins from the naphtha fraction is not sufficiently high enough to reach the typical octane number values of gasoline products delivered at filling stations. Assuming the goal of launching a premium biodiesel or biokerosene fuel to the market, these hydroprocessed synthetic biofuels from FT biowaxes are ideal blending components.


Conference contributions | 2010

Integration of Sensor Based Sorting in the Mechanical Treatment of Municipal and Commercial Waste

Brooks L, Ragossnig A, Meirhofer M, Pieber S. Integration of Sensor Based Sorting in the Mechanical Treatment of Municipal and Commercial Waste, Orbit 2010, 29th of June-3rd of July 2010, Heraklion, Crete.

Details

Due to the Austrian legal framework provided by the landfill ordinance from 1996 which has been fully implemented by January 1st 2009, waste with an organic content higher than 5% TOC (total organic carbon) must not be dumped without prior treatment in order to avoid greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Besides thermal treatment also mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) has been enabled by the regulator as an eligible treatment approach, whereby waste to be dumped must comply with the threshold of 6,600 kJ/kg DM (dry mass) stipulated for the upper caloric value. This is a tough challenge due to the high energy content of plastic, paper, cardboard and wood components which are still contained in the low caloric output fraction of the MBT of municipal and commercial waste as those materials have a much higher upper caloric value. From the resource conservation point of view the utilization of these waste components for energetic purposes is desirable too.
The implementation of the legal framework as one measure battling climate change as well as constantly rising energy prices have caused a change from pure waste management with the intention to reduce the organic content in waste, to the point where high caloric components have become a substitute for fossil fuels in certain sectors of industries (cement industry, pulp & paper industry, steel works, etc). Using waste derived or so-called refuse derived fuel (RDF) demands high purity in order to secure environmental standards as well as product quality and therefore process related requirements have to be met. This can be achieved by 1) qualified selection of the waste streams into the treatment plants and 2) by processing technologies allowing the separation of wanted/unwanted waste components within the plant concept. In cooperation with a regional waste management company, responsible for the treatment and disposal of 82,000 t/a of municipal and commercial waste and operator of a MBT plant as well as a landfill, further processing of a specific output waste stream from the MBT plant was analysed in order to allow an optimized routing of the output streams including the energetic utilization of high caloric components and landfilling of low caloric and inert components. Experiments using the innovative treatment technology of sensor based sorting were conducted with a waste stream characterized by 59 % high caloric components (polymers, paper and cardboard, wood), 8 % other organic components, 27 % inert waste, 3 % metals and 3 % other waste (textiles, fine fraction < 20 mm, hazardous waste). The particle size of that particular waste stream is 20-80 mm. The sorting machine was a NIR (near infrared) multiplex sensor based sorting system with a wavelength of 1,400-1,900 nm in pilot scale. Results showed that by varying the parameters air pressure (bar), scanning speed (Hz), blow out time (ms) and the evaluation of spectra, about 76 % of polymers, 86 % of wood and 96 % of paper and cardboard of the input fractions could be separated from the inorganic waste stream. The remaining components were inert waste (53%), metals (3 %), other waste (textiles, contaminated waste, fine fraction < 20 mm) (3 %), but also dark polymers (12 %), undefined organics (e.g. fruits, vegetables) (9%) and still 20 % of polymers, wood, paper and cardboards. Due to the high portion of organic components and dark polymers in the stream, the threshold of 6,600 kJ/kg DM defined for waste to be landfilled could not be met. Further experiments with a more sensitive sorting system, a spectral imaging technology (wavelength up to 2,500 nm), are planned, supposing that the rejection rate of dark polymers could be increased. Theoretical considerations have shown that in that case the threshold could be met.


Conference contributions | 2010

Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements

Brunner T, Fluch J, Obernberger I, Warnecke R. Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September 2010, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2010

Modelling of grate combustion in a medium scale biomass furnace for control purposes

Bauer R, Gölles M, Brunner T, Dourdoumas N, Obernberger I. Modelling of grate combustion in a medium scale biomass furnace for control purposes. Biomass Bioenergy. 2010;34(4):417-27.

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Details

A new mathematical model for the grate combustion of biomass has been derived from physical considerations. Various models for grate combustion can already be found in the literature. Usually their intention is to simulate the real situation in a furnace as precisely as possible. Hence they are very detailed, typically consisting of many partial differential equations. However, because of their complexity they are useless for control purposes. The new model is very simple, consisting of only two ordinary differential equations, which makes it particularly suitable as a basis for model based control strategies. To verify the model, experiments were performed at a pilot scale furnace with horizontally moving grate. The pilot plant is a downscaled version (180 kWth) of a typical medium scale furnace in terms of geometry and instrumentation. Comparison of the measured and calculated values shows good agreement. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Other Presentations | 2010

Niedertemperatur Drehrohrpyrolyse als Vorschaltprozess für die Co-Verbrennung von unkonventionellen Brennstoffen in thermischen Anlagen

Kern, S. Niedertemperatur Drehrohrpyrolyse als Vorschaltprozess für die Co-Verbrennung von unkonventionellen Brennstoffen in thermischen Anlagen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2010.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Optimisation of biomass grate furnaces with a new 3D packed bed combustion model - on example of a small-scale underfeed stoker furnace

Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Weissinger A, Obernberger I. Optimisation of biomass grate furnaces with a new 3D packed bed combustion model - on example of a small-scale underfeed stoker furnace, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1175-1183.

Details

The design and optimisation of a biomass grate furnace requires accurate and efficient models for the
combustion process on the grate as well as the turbulent reactive flow in the combustion chamber. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been successfully applied for gas phase combustion. However, no numerical models for the biomass packed bed combustion, which can be used as engineering design tools, are commercially available at present. This paper presents an innovative 3D CFD model for biomass packed bed combustion consisting of an Euler-Granular model for hydrodynamics of gas-particle multiphase flow and a thermally thin particle model for combustion of biomass particles. Modelling the particle trajectories and the thermal conversion of each particle in the bed constitutes the simulation of the entire bed combustion. The simulation of a small-scale underfeed stoker furnace of KWB has been successfully performed by the application of the new packed bed combustion model. The positions of the drying, pyrolysis and char burnout zones in the fuel bed as well as the temperature distribution among the particles seem to be plausible and could be confirmed by observations. Furthermore, a good qualitative agreement concerning the flue gas temperatures measured by thermocouples at different positions in the combustion chamber, and CO emissions measured at boiler outlet could be achieved. The new packed bed model provides the advantages of considering the release profiles of species and energy from the fuel bed close to reality and enables to consider the chemical compositions, size and physical properties of the fuel particles as well as the influence of primary air
distribution and grate motion on the particle trajectories.


Conference contributions | 2010

PM emissions from old and modern biomass combustion systems and their health effects

Kelz J, Brunner T, Obernberger I, Hirvonen M, Javala P. PM emissions from old and modern biomass combustion systems and their health effects, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1231-1243.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Production of Synthetic Biofuels in existing Industry - Simulation of FICFB and Fischer - Tropsch - Process in IPSEpro

Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Production of Synthetic Biofuels in existing Industry - Simulation of FICFB and Fischer - Tropsch - Process in IPSEpro, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

Details

In cooperation between Vienna University of Technology and Bioenergy 2020+ a project was done which had the objective to evaluate the prospects for the production of Biofuels by integration in existing Austrian biomass industry. The advantages of such integration are the good access to renewable energy resources like wood chips, existing infrastructure for electricity and heat, existing logistics of resources and the utilization of waste heat from Biofuel production to substitute fossil fuels. One work package included the process simulation of thermo-chemical biomass gasification and the production of a second generation Biofuel by the use of Fischer – Tropsch (FT) - synthesis. The process simulation tool IPSEpro was used for the simulation. The simulation of technical processes allows the prediction of the behavior of processes on the base of mathematical models. The quality of a simulation model depends substantially on the used model and the process parameters. The used technologies in the process simulation were the biomass gasification with the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system and the Fischer –Tropsch (FT) - synthesis. The FICFB was developed by the Vienna University of technology. This gasification technology is used in the well known demonstration plant is Güssing (Austria). The produced product gas is nearly nitrogen free and has a high content of hydrogen (45 – 35 Vol%dry) and carbon monoxide (25 – 20 Vol%dry). These product gas components are used in the FT - synthesis for the production of FT – raw product. A FT - Trial Plant is also situated in Güssing since the year 2005. A slurry reactor is used in the Trial Plant for the FT – synthesis. The target for the simulation was the production of FT – raw product as well as the substitution of fossil fuels. The waste heat of the process should be used for the production of steam. An amount of 120 tons per hour of fossil produced steam should be substituted. The
Off-Gas of the FT – process was also used for the production of steam. Two different models for location number one were considered. The used fuel was wood chips. The data out of the simulation were used to calculate the economic efficiency of the plants. An important parameter was the price of the FT – raw product per liter. The total costs and the production capacity were set equal to calculate the marginal revenue. Also a sensitivity analysis was done to evaluate the effects of rising fuel costs and increased investment costs.


Conference contributions | 2010

Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis First Results of a 3 MW Pilot Plant

Kern S, Halwachs M, Pröll T, Kampichler G. Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis First Results of a 3 MW Pilot Plant, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3th-7th May 2010, Lyon, France. p 950-955.

Details

A pyrolysis process can be used to split up the biomass in a volatile fraction poor in undesired substances (Cl, N, S,
Na and K) and a char fraction where these substances are concentrated. In this way cheap biomass can be used for cofiring in existing fossil fuel power stations without the danger of corrosion, deposition, and emission problems. The aim of the project is the development and demonstration of a biomass pretreatment process based on pyrolysis in the temperature range between 450-650 °C to split the energy in the biomass into volatiles with a low content of the above mentioned undesired compounds and char, where most of these pollutants are concentrated. The balance of the system can provide important results, such as the development of the product spectrum by a function of the operating parameters. Based on the results of the pilot plant a scale up to a capacity of 30 MWth fuel input and the connection with the coal fired power plant is currently investigated.


Conference contributions | 2010

Rotary kiln pyrolysis- First results of a 3 MW pilot plant

Kern S, Halwachs M, Pröll T, Kampichler G. Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis First Results of a 3 MW Pilot Plant, IFC on IGCC and XtL 2010, 3rd-5th of May 2010, Dresden, Germany.

Details

A pyrolysis process can be used to split up the biomass in a volatile fraction poor in undesired substances (Cl, N, S,
Na and K) and a char fraction where these substances are concentrated. In this way cheap biomass can be used for cofiring in existing fossil fuel power stations without the danger of corrosion, deposition, and emission problems. The aim of the project is the development and demonstration of a biomass pretreatment process based on pyrolysis in the temperature range between 450-650 °C to split the energy in the biomass into volatiles with a low content of the above mentioned undesired compounds and char, where most of these pollutants are concentrated. The balance of the system can provide important results, such as the development of the product spectrum by a function of the operating parameters. Based on the results of the pilot plant a scale up to a capacity of 30 MWth fuel input and the connection with the coal fired power plant is currently investigated.


Contributions to trade journals | 2010

Sewage Sludge Ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

Mattenberger H, Fraissler G, Jöller M, Brunner T, Obernberger I, Herk P, et al. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): Influences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal. Waste Manage. 2010;30(8-9):1622-33.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Tapping the energy contained in waste for renewable energy provision - example of Austria

Ragossnig A. Tapping the energy contained in waste for renewable energy provision - example of Austria, International Work-Shop ENERGY & FUELS FROM WASTE & BIOMASS 2010, 5th of January 2010, Pucon, Chile.

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Conference contributions | 2010

The present state and future development of industrial biomass combustion for heat and power generation

Obernberger I. The present state and future development of industrial biomass combustion for heat and power generation, ASME-ATI-UIT 2010 Conference on Thermal and Environmental Issues in Energy Systems 2010, 16th-19th of May 2010, Sorrento, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Thermal Conversion of Biomass by Microwave Energy - First Results with Wood

Schrammel G, Paisler C, Krug H, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Thermal Conversion of Biomass by Microwave Energy - First Results with Wood, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3rd-7th May 2010, Lyon, France. p 907-910.

Details

By using a microwave generator as energy source wood gets converted into three products: (1) condensate (“product oil”), (2) product gas and (3) charcoal (“material residue”). In this microwave-based specific kind of pyrolysis process wood is used as standard input material in order to have the possibility to compare the three generated products either with products of already established conventional pyrolysis processes [1] or other processes like gasification within thermo-chemical conversion [2]. Therefore, a discontinuous microwave apparatus of technical standard size (magnetron power: 6 kW, magnetron frequency: 2.45 GHz) is used.


Conference contributions | 2010

Thermogravimetric Analysis and Devolatilisation Kinetics of New Biomass Fuels

Moradi F, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Thermogravimetric Analysis and Devolatilisation Kinetics of New Biomass Fuels, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. (visual presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2010

Trends and opportunities of micro-CHP technologies based on biomass combustion

Obernberger I. Trends and opportunities of micro-CHP technologies based on biomass combustion, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1-9.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2010

Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

Zahirović S, Scharler R, Kilpinen P, Obernberger I. Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for the CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2011;15(1):61-87.

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Details

While reasonably accurate in simulating gas phase combustion in biomass grate furnaces, CFD tools based on simple turbulence-chemistry interaction models and global reaction mechanisms have been shown to lack in reliability regarding the prediction of NOx formation. Coupling detailed NOx reaction kinetics with advanced turbulence-chemistry interaction models is a promising alternative, yet computationally inefficient for engineering purposes. In the present work, a model is proposed to overcome these difficulties. The model is based on the Realizable k-ε model for turbulence, Eddy Dissipation Concept for turbulence-chemistry interaction and the HK97 reactionmechanism. The assessment of the sub-models in terms of accuracy and computational effort was carried out on three laboratory-scale turbulent jet flames in comparison with the experimental data. Without taking NOx formation into account, the accuracy of turbulence modelling and turbulence-chemistry interaction modelling was systematically examined on Sandia Flame D and Sandia CO/H2/N2 Flame B to support the choice of the associated models. As revealed by the Large Eddy Simulations of the former flame, the shortcomings of turbulence modelling by the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach considerably influence the prediction of the mixing-dominated combustion process. This reduced the sensitivity of the RANS results to the variations of turbulence-chemistry interaction models and combustion kinetics. Issues related to the NOx formation with a focus on fuel bound nitrogen sources were investigated on a NH3-doped syngas flame. The experimentally observed trend in NOx yield from NH3 was correctly reproduced by HK97, whereas the replacement of its combustion subset by that of a detailed reaction scheme led to a more accurate agreement, but at increased computational costs. Moreover, based on results of simulations with HK97, the main features of the local course of the NOx formation processes were identified by a detailed analysis of the interactions between the nitrogen chemistry and the underlying flow field. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Conference contributions | 2010

Valorisation of low grade Biomass to substitute fossil Fuels in a thermal Power Plant

Kern S, Halwachs M, Hofbauer H, Kampichler G. Valorisation of low grade Biomass to substitute fossil Fuels in a thermal Power Plant, WasteEng 2010, 17th-19th of May 2010, Peking, China.

Details

Minimizing carbon dioxide emissions whereas keeping up the high living standard of today is only possible by increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and the change to a mix of renewable fuels. Huge amounts of unused biomass in terms of agricultural residues like straw, that is a cheap and local feedstock, are often available. But as a reason of the high amount of corrosive ash elements (K, Cl, S), the residues are not suitable for co-firing in a thermal power plant. Therefore the feedstock is converted by low temperature pyrolysis into pyrolysis gases and charcoal. The aim of this work is to obtain fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach by the results of the pilot plant for co-firing the pyrolysis gases in a thermal power plant. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated since 2008. For the process, an externally heated rotary kiln reactor with a design fuel power of 3 MW is used. Several mass and energy balances have been calculated based on measured plant data for different operating points of the pilot plant. The high amount of pyrolysis oil in the gas has positive effects to the heating value of the pyrolysis gases. As a reason of that, cold gas efficiencies of more than 70 % are possible. Based on these results, a scale up to a next scale pyrolysis reactor with a capacity of 30 MWth fuel input is currently investigated.


Conference contributions | 2010

Wooden Biofuels in Europe – Quantities and Corrosion Relevant Characteristics.

Schmidl C, Humel S, Haslinger W, Friedl G. Wooden Biofuels in Europe – Quantities and Corrosion Relevant Characteristics, 18th European Biomass Conference 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 308-315.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2009

A cell agglomeration algorithm for accelerating detailed chemistry. In: Combustion Theory and Modelling

Goldin GM, Ren Z, Zahirovic S. A cell agglomeration algorithm for accelerating detailed chemistry in CFD. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2009;13(4):721-39.

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Details

A cell agglomeration algorithm is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of incorporating detailed chemical kinetics in multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Cells that are close in species and energy composition space are agglomerated before calling the reaction integrator, substantially reducing the number of chemistry integrations. The algorithm is generalized and applicable to any reacting flow configuration, and the accuracy is fully controllable. A dynamic hash table is used to efficiently bin cells into high dimensional hyper-cubes in composition space. The method is applied to four different CFD simulations and the speed-up and incurred error are assessed for a range of agglomeration tolerances and table dimensions. The proposed approach exhibits up to an order of magnitude speed-up with a relatively moderate decrease in accuracy.


Conference contributions | 2009

Assessing and Labelling the Eco-Efficiency of Small Scale Biomass Combustion Systems - BIOHEATLABEL

Haslinger W, Griesmayr S, Strasser C, Lingitz A, Jungmeier G. Assessing and Labelling the Eco-Efficiency of Small Scale Biomass Combustion Systems – BIOHEATLABEL, 17th European Biomass Conference 2009, 29th of June-3rd of July 2009, Hamburg, Germany. p 2335-2340.

Details

The project BioHeatLABEL aims at the derivation of eco-design criteria for small scale biomass
combustion systems. It is a mirror project to the on-going European preparatory study for solid fuel small combustion installations. The presented paper gives an overview of the on-going work. It presents the applied methodologies so far. Sales and performance data as well as prices are collected for the existing stock as well as for new products. Six Base Cases are defined to best possibly represent market relevant product categories. These Base Cases are (1) log wood boilers with natural draught, (2) log wood boilers with forced draught, (3) wood chips boilers, (4) wood pellets boilers, (5) log wood stoves, and (6) wood pellets stoves. For these product categories the bills of production materials as well as for packaging are collected and information about the end-of-life behaviour is retrieved. Based on the above, preliminary life cycle assessment calculations are performed using the tool EuP EcoReport. The usability of this tool for a sound, reliable and representative life cycle assessment is discussed. Finally, an outlook on the further work is given.


Conference contributions | 2009

Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

Rauch R. Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification, Gasification 2009 –gas clean up and treatment, 22th-23th of October 2009, Clarion Hotel Sign, Stockholm, Sweden.

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