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Conference contributions | 2011

Development of biomass fired boilers with an advanced CFD model for ash deposit and aerosol formation

Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Development of biomass fired boilers with an advanced CFD model for ash deposit and aerosol formation, 9th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers 2011, 26th-29th of April 2011, Estoril, Portugal.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Highlights der Bioenergieforschung

Fercher E. Highlights der Bioenergieforschung, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion

Brunner T, Kelz J, Obernberger I, Javala P, Hirvonen M. Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels)

Jungmeier G, Lingitz A, Canella L, Haslinger W, Strasser C, Moser W. LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels), Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen

Meirhofer M, Ragossnig A, Pieber S, Sommer M. Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen, Waste-to-Resources 2011, 24th-27th of May 2011, Hannover, Germany.

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The processing of heterogeneous waste is a major challenge for waste treatment equipment used in mechanical-biological (MB) waste treatment plants. This conference contribution focuses on the technical feasibility and efficiency of different technologies for the processing of a heavy waste fraction from a MB-plant which contains a high portion of high caloric components. The aim is to meet the requirements for waste to be landfilled in Austria. Also economic considerations with regard to the implementation of an additional separation step and the resulting changes in the waste routing are discussed. The processing technologies looked at comprise sensor-based sorting technologies (NIR, X-ray transmission) as well as traditional mechanical density separation technologies such as a jigger and cross-flow air classification.


Conference contributions | 2011

Trennung heterogener Abfälle durch sensorgestützte Sortierung zur Optimierung materialspezifischer Abfallbehandlung

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Sommer M, Meirhofer M, Curtis A, Pomberger R. Trennung heterogener Abfälle durch sensorgestützte Sortierung zur Optimierung materialspezifischer Abfallbehandlung, Waste-to-Resources 2011, 24th-27th of May 2011, Hannover, Germany.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2011

Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

Zahirović S, Scharler R, Kilpinen P, Obernberger I. Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for the CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2011;15(1):61-87.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler

Schulze K, Scharler R, Telian M, Obernberger I. Advanced modelling of deposit formation in biomass furnaces – investigation of mechanisms and comparison with deposit measurements in a small-scale pellet boiler, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Brooks L, Meirhofer M, Pomberger R, Curtis A. Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Austria. p 695-698.

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Heterogeneous wastes, which cannot be material-recycled easily are used for energetic utilization. Certain quality criteria need to be met in this context, addressing especially the chlorine content due to the product quality as well as to environmental and safety issues. In regard of current issues in climate policy concerning emission trading, also an increased biogenic content in these waste fractions is desirable. Therefore, experiments with a sensor-based sorting technology at pilot scale as well as large scale have been conducted to analyse the technical feasibility of this technology for its application on heterogeneous wastes to gain products with desired material and quality criteria. The results of pilot scale experiments show that the sensor-based sorting technology is generally technically feasible to gain waste fractions with the required characteristics, if the technology was adjusted to the specific waste stream. Due to restrictions during the large scale experiment a number of further issues need to be addressed in
further experiments to allow for a concluding evaluation of that treatment concept.


Conference contributions | 2010

Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers

Haslinger W, Heckmann M, Schmidl C, Schwarz M. Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers, 10. Industrieforum Pellets, 7th-8th of September 2010, Stuttgart, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig A, Pieber S, Brooks L, Fercher E. Behandlungsoptionen für eine MBA Schwerfraktion am Beispiel MBA Oberpullendorf, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Österreich.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Challenges and requirements for the technical development of pellet heating systems.

Haslinger W, Schmidl C. Challenges and requirements for the technical development of pellet heating systems, 10. Industrieforum Pellets 2010, 7th-8th of September 2010, Stuttgart, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Development of process routes for synthetic biofuels from biomass (BTL)

Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Development of process routes for synthetic biofuels from biomass (BTL), 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3rd-7th May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1829-1833.

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In Güssing a nearly nitrogen free product gas can be provided by the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system. The main components of the product gas are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). A Fischer – Tropsch (FT-) trial plant uses the product gas components H2 and CO in an exothermic, catalytic reaction to produce hydrocarbon chains. Catalysts based on iron and cobalt are used for the synthesis. In Güssing a slurry reactor is used for low temperature FT – synthesis. The main parts of the plant are the gas cleaning section, the gas compression section, the FT – slurry reactor and the product separation section. In the year 2008 eight experiments with a catalyst based on iron and from April to July 2009 ten experiments with a catalyst based on cobalt were done. Over 1400 operating hours were reached and approximately 170 kg of FT – raw product was produced. The product of the experiments with cobalt catalyst was split into the fractions naphtha, diesel and waxes by vacuum distillation. The long chain waxes of the distillation were used in a hydro – treater to convert them to diesel.


Conference contributions | 2010

Efficient biomass utilisation by polygeneration processes - Production of hydrogen, electricity and heat

Mayer T. Efficient biomass utilisation by polygeneration processes - Production of hydrogen, electricity and heat, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

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A polygeneration process is about to be implemented at the biomass gasification plant in Oberwart, Austria. Apart from conventional heat and electricity production, product gas obtained from steam gasification of wood chips is used for production of hydrogen. A membrane separation process was chosen for this application. Meeting the requirements of robustness and simplicity are benefits of this technology, however, maximizing of purity and output of hydrogen is not given highest priority. Simulation results show the gas compositions of both permeate and retentate stream as a function of different membrane stage-cuts. Basically high hydrogen content in the permeate stream can be achieved, but only with the drawback of low stage-cuts. Moreover, the trade-off between hydrogen purity and hydrogen recovery as well as the influence of the operating pressure on the purity are illustrated.


Conference contributions | 2010

Evaluating the Transient Behaviour of Biomass Based Micro-CHP Systems - Steam Piston Engine and Integrated Thermoelectric Power Generation

Friedl G, McCarry A, Aigenbauer S, Moser W, Haslinger W. Evaluating the Transient Behaviour of Biomass Based Micro-CHP Systems - Steam Piston Engine and Integrated Thermoelectric Power Generation, 18th European Biomass Conference 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1271-1282.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Gas Cleaning and Treatment of product gas of a dual fluidised bed gasifier for CHP and synthesis applications

Rauch R. Gas Cleaning and Treatment of product gas of a dual fluidised bed gasifier for CHP and synthesis applications, SNG 2010, 30th of June-1st of July 2010, Concepcion, Chile.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Gasification of residues and waste wood in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Kitzler H, Hofbauer H. Gasification of residues and waste wood in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

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Because of the limited resources of fossil fuels the efficient use of renewable energy is gaining importance. Renewable energy from biomass reduces CO2 emissions, which is a necessity to protect the global climate. In the dual fluidised bed steam gasifier wood chips are converted to heat, power and other products very successfully. This work presents alternative feedstocks for this process: biomass wastes, such as waste wood, bark and reed. Waste wood and bark have been gasified successfully and first results of these experiments in the pilot plant are presented in this paper. It has been assessed that reed is also an interesting feedstock suitable for the use in fluidised bed gasifiers.


Conference contributions | 2010

Grid autarchy of automated pellets combustion systems by the means of thermoelectric generators

Höfteberger E, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Friedl G, Haslinger W. Grid autarchy of automated pellets combustion systems by the means of thermoelectric generators, Thermoelectrics goes Automotive 2010, 9th-10th of December 2010, Berlin, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Hydroprocessing of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes to 2nd generation biofuels

Schablitzky H, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Hydroprocessing of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes to 2nd generation biofuels, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Deutschland.

Details

Upgrading of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) biowaxes to second-generation biofuels via hydroprocessing is the final
step for increasing the fuel amount of the overall biomass conversion route: gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, FT synthesis, and hydroprocessing. The typical FT product portfolio consists of high molecular weight paraffinic waxes as the main product and FT fuels in the diesel and naphtha boiling range. OMV's objective and contribution to the project focus on achieving coprocessing of FT biowaxes with fossil feedstock using existing hydrotreating plants of crude oil refineries. Various test runs have been examined with a conventional refining catalyst under mild conditions (380–390°C, 5.8 MPa; WHSV, 0.7–1.3 h−1) in a pilot plant. Pure FT biowax is converted to gases, fuels, and an oil/waxy residue in a fixed-bed reactor with a porous catalyst layer technology. The presence of hydrogen in the reaction chamber reduces the fast deactivation of the catalyst caused by the formation of a coke layer around the catalyst particle surface and saturates cracked hydrocarbon fragments. Another approach is the creation of synthetic biodiesel components with excellent fuel properties for premium fuel
application. Basically, premium diesel fuel differs from standard diesel quality by cetane number and cold flow
properties. Hydroprocessed synthetic biodiesel (HPFT diesel) has compared to conventional diesel advantages in many aspects. Depending on the catalyst selected, premium diesel quality can be obtained by shifting cold flow
operability properties of HPFT fuels to a range capable even under extreme cold conditions. In addition, a highquality kerosene fraction is obtained to create bio jet fuels with an extremely deep freezing point, as low as −80°C. The isomerization degree, as well as the carbon number distribution of high paraffinic profile, and the branching degree have a major impact on the cold flow properties and cetane number. FT diesel has, compared to HPFT diesel, a slightly higher derived cetane number (DCN>83) and a cloud point of −9°C, whereas HPFT diesel reaches values as low as −60°C. Although the HPFT naphtha obtained consists of high amounts of isoparaffins, the RON/ MON values are comparable to fossil straight-run naphtha. The reason is that the branching degree of isoparaffins from the naphtha fraction is not sufficiently high enough to reach the typical octane number values of gasoline products delivered at filling stations. Assuming the goal of launching a premium biodiesel or biokerosene fuel to the market, these hydroprocessed synthetic biofuels from FT biowaxes are ideal blending components.


Conference contributions | 2010

Integration of Sensor Based Sorting in the Mechanical Treatment of Municipal and Commercial Waste

Brooks L, Ragossnig A, Meirhofer M, Pieber S. Integration of Sensor Based Sorting in the Mechanical Treatment of Municipal and Commercial Waste, Orbit 2010, 29th of June-3rd of July 2010, Heraklion, Crete.

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Due to the Austrian legal framework provided by the landfill ordinance from 1996 which has been fully implemented by January 1st 2009, waste with an organic content higher than 5% TOC (total organic carbon) must not be dumped without prior treatment in order to avoid greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Besides thermal treatment also mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) has been enabled by the regulator as an eligible treatment approach, whereby waste to be dumped must comply with the threshold of 6,600 kJ/kg DM (dry mass) stipulated for the upper caloric value. This is a tough challenge due to the high energy content of plastic, paper, cardboard and wood components which are still contained in the low caloric output fraction of the MBT of municipal and commercial waste as those materials have a much higher upper caloric value. From the resource conservation point of view the utilization of these waste components for energetic purposes is desirable too.
The implementation of the legal framework as one measure battling climate change as well as constantly rising energy prices have caused a change from pure waste management with the intention to reduce the organic content in waste, to the point where high caloric components have become a substitute for fossil fuels in certain sectors of industries (cement industry, pulp & paper industry, steel works, etc). Using waste derived or so-called refuse derived fuel (RDF) demands high purity in order to secure environmental standards as well as product quality and therefore process related requirements have to be met. This can be achieved by 1) qualified selection of the waste streams into the treatment plants and 2) by processing technologies allowing the separation of wanted/unwanted waste components within the plant concept. In cooperation with a regional waste management company, responsible for the treatment and disposal of 82,000 t/a of municipal and commercial waste and operator of a MBT plant as well as a landfill, further processing of a specific output waste stream from the MBT plant was analysed in order to allow an optimized routing of the output streams including the energetic utilization of high caloric components and landfilling of low caloric and inert components. Experiments using the innovative treatment technology of sensor based sorting were conducted with a waste stream characterized by 59 % high caloric components (polymers, paper and cardboard, wood), 8 % other organic components, 27 % inert waste, 3 % metals and 3 % other waste (textiles, fine fraction < 20 mm, hazardous waste). The particle size of that particular waste stream is 20-80 mm. The sorting machine was a NIR (near infrared) multiplex sensor based sorting system with a wavelength of 1,400-1,900 nm in pilot scale. Results showed that by varying the parameters air pressure (bar), scanning speed (Hz), blow out time (ms) and the evaluation of spectra, about 76 % of polymers, 86 % of wood and 96 % of paper and cardboard of the input fractions could be separated from the inorganic waste stream. The remaining components were inert waste (53%), metals (3 %), other waste (textiles, contaminated waste, fine fraction < 20 mm) (3 %), but also dark polymers (12 %), undefined organics (e.g. fruits, vegetables) (9%) and still 20 % of polymers, wood, paper and cardboards. Due to the high portion of organic components and dark polymers in the stream, the threshold of 6,600 kJ/kg DM defined for waste to be landfilled could not be met. Further experiments with a more sensitive sorting system, a spectral imaging technology (wavelength up to 2,500 nm), are planned, supposing that the rejection rate of dark polymers could be increased. Theoretical considerations have shown that in that case the threshold could be met.


Conference contributions | 2010

Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements

Brunner T, Fluch J, Obernberger I, Warnecke R. Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September 2010, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2010

Modelling of grate combustion in a medium scale biomass furnace for control purposes

Bauer R, Gölles M, Brunner T, Dourdoumas N, Obernberger I. Modelling of grate combustion in a medium scale biomass furnace for control purposes. Biomass Bioenergy. 2010;34(4):417-27.

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Details

A new mathematical model for the grate combustion of biomass has been derived from physical considerations. Various models for grate combustion can already be found in the literature. Usually their intention is to simulate the real situation in a furnace as precisely as possible. Hence they are very detailed, typically consisting of many partial differential equations. However, because of their complexity they are useless for control purposes. The new model is very simple, consisting of only two ordinary differential equations, which makes it particularly suitable as a basis for model based control strategies. To verify the model, experiments were performed at a pilot scale furnace with horizontally moving grate. The pilot plant is a downscaled version (180 kWth) of a typical medium scale furnace in terms of geometry and instrumentation. Comparison of the measured and calculated values shows good agreement. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Other Presentations | 2010

Niedertemperatur Drehrohrpyrolyse als Vorschaltprozess für die Co-Verbrennung von unkonventionellen Brennstoffen in thermischen Anlagen

Kern, S. Niedertemperatur Drehrohrpyrolyse als Vorschaltprozess für die Co-Verbrennung von unkonventionellen Brennstoffen in thermischen Anlagen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2010.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Optimisation of biomass grate furnaces with a new 3D packed bed combustion model - on example of a small-scale underfeed stoker furnace

Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Weissinger A, Obernberger I. Optimisation of biomass grate furnaces with a new 3D packed bed combustion model - on example of a small-scale underfeed stoker furnace, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1175-1183.

Details

The design and optimisation of a biomass grate furnace requires accurate and efficient models for the
combustion process on the grate as well as the turbulent reactive flow in the combustion chamber. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been successfully applied for gas phase combustion. However, no numerical models for the biomass packed bed combustion, which can be used as engineering design tools, are commercially available at present. This paper presents an innovative 3D CFD model for biomass packed bed combustion consisting of an Euler-Granular model for hydrodynamics of gas-particle multiphase flow and a thermally thin particle model for combustion of biomass particles. Modelling the particle trajectories and the thermal conversion of each particle in the bed constitutes the simulation of the entire bed combustion. The simulation of a small-scale underfeed stoker furnace of KWB has been successfully performed by the application of the new packed bed combustion model. The positions of the drying, pyrolysis and char burnout zones in the fuel bed as well as the temperature distribution among the particles seem to be plausible and could be confirmed by observations. Furthermore, a good qualitative agreement concerning the flue gas temperatures measured by thermocouples at different positions in the combustion chamber, and CO emissions measured at boiler outlet could be achieved. The new packed bed model provides the advantages of considering the release profiles of species and energy from the fuel bed close to reality and enables to consider the chemical compositions, size and physical properties of the fuel particles as well as the influence of primary air
distribution and grate motion on the particle trajectories.


Conference contributions | 2010

PM emissions from old and modern biomass combustion systems and their health effects

Kelz J, Brunner T, Obernberger I, Hirvonen M, Javala P. PM emissions from old and modern biomass combustion systems and their health effects, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1231-1243.

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