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Conference Papers | 2017

Optimisation of the post-consumer and demolition wood supply and value chain

Dißauer C, Kienzl N, Kunter A, Meirhofer M, Pointner C, Schwarzbauer P, Sommersacher P, Strasser C, Wellacher M. Optimisation of the post-consumer and demolition wood supply and value chain. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Overcoming the bottlenecks of anaerobic digestion of olive mill solid waste by two-stage fermentation

Stoyanova E, Lundaa T, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Overcoming the bottlenecks of anaerobic digestion of olive mill solid waste by two-stage fermentation. Environmental Technology (United Kingdom). 16 February 2017;38(4): 394-405.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Particulate emissions from modern and old technology wood combustion induce distinct time-dependent patterns of toxicological responses in vitro.

Happo MS, Hirvonen MR, Uski O, Kasurinen S, Kelz J, Brunner T, Obernberger I, Jalava PI. Particulate emissions from modern and old technology wood combustion induce distinct time-dependent patterns of toxicological responses in vitro. Toxicology in Vitro. Volume 44, October 2017, Pages 164-171

Toxicology in Vitro.

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Toxicological characterisation of combustion emissions in vitro are often conducted with macrophage cell lines, and the majority of these experiments are based on responses measured at 24 h after the exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate how significant role time course plays on toxicological endpoints that are commonly measured in vitro. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed to PM1 samples (150 μg/ml) from biomass combustion devices representing old and modern combustion technologies for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 32 h. After the exposure, cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane integrity, cellular DNA content, DNA damage and production of inflammatory markers were assessed. The present study revealed major differences in the time courses of the responses, statistical differences between the studied samples mostly limiting to differences between modern and old technology samples. Early stage responses consisted of disturbances in metabolic activity and cell membrane integrity. Middle time points revealed increases in chemokine production, whereas late-phase responses exhibited mostly increased DNA-damage, decreased membrane integrity and apoptotic activity. Altogether, these results implicate that the time point of measurement has to be considered carefully, when the toxicity of emission particles is characterised in in vitro study set-ups.


Conference Papers | 2017

Performance of a mixed alcohol synthesis lab-scale process chain operated with wood gas from dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

Binder M, Weber G, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Performance of a mixed alcohol synthesis lab-scale process chain operated with wood gas from dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2017

Performance of a water gas shift unit processing tar-rich product gas from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant which operates at partial load

Kraussler M, Binder M, Hofbauer H. Performance of a water gas shift unit processing tar-rich product gas from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant which operates at partial load. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology. 2017;14(1-2): 32-48.

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In this paper, the performance of a water gas shift unit processing product gas from a commercial dual fluidised bed biomass steam gasification plant is studied. The experiments were carried out during a partial load operation of the gasification plant. In order to investigate a water gas shift process, a water gas shift unit, located at the site of the gasification plant in Oberwart, Austria, was used. The water gas shift unit consisted of three reactors in series filled with a commercial Fe'Cr-based catalyst and was operated with tar-rich product gas. No performance decrease of the water gas shift unit was observed during the partial load operation of the gasification plant. Furthermore, a CO conversion of 92% and a GCMS tar reduction of about 30% were reached. In addition, it was found that partial load operation of the gasification plant did not negatively affect the performance of the water gas shift unit.


Conference Papers | 2017

Polygeneration of hydrogen and a gas mixture composed of H2 and CH4 via sorption enhanced reforming of biomass

Kraussler M, Priscak J, Benedikt F, Hofbauer H. Polygeneration of hydrogen and a gas mixture composed of H2 and CH4 via sorption enhanced reforming of biomass. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2017

Production of Fuel Ethanol and Higher Alcohols from Biomass Residue

Summers M, Liao C, Hoffman M, Hart M, Seiser R, Neimann U, Cattolica R, Rauch R, Binder M. Production of Fuel Ethanol and Higher Alcohols from Biomass Residue. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Pyrolysis of pellets made with biomass and glycerol: Kinetic analysis and evolved gas analysis

Bartocci P, Anca-Couce A, Slopiecka K, Nefkens S, Evic N, Retschitzegger S, Barbanera M, Buratti C, Cotana F, Bidini G, Fantozzi F. Pyrolysis of pellets made with biomass and glycerol: Kinetic analysis and evolved gas analysis. Biomass and Bioenergy. February 2017;97: 11-19.

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Glycerol is a co-product compound of biodiesel production with an interesting heating value. In this work pyrolysis kinetic parameters for a pellet made with a mass fraction of 90% sawdust and a mass fraction of 10% glycerol are derived through thermogravimetric analysis. A new parallel reaction scheme with four components (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and glycerol) is adopted and the kinetic triplet for each component is derived using a model fitting approach applied to this particular kind of pellet. The isoconversional method Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose is employed both to provide initial values for model fitting simulations and to check final results. Results show that activation energies and pre-exponential factors are respectively: 149.7 kJ mol1 and 1.98*1011 s−1 for hemicellulose, 230.1 kJ mol1 and 1.84*1017 s−1 for cellulose, 154.3 kJ mol1 and 5.14*109 s−1 for lignin, 74.5 kJ mol1 and 2.17*105 s−1 for glycerol with a first reaction order for all components, except for lignin (n = 2.6). Through evolved gas analysis it was demonstrated that the thermal degradation of glycerol contained in the pellet can increase hydrogen content in pyrolysis gases.


Conference Papers | 2017

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge to produce fuels and chemical feedstock

Wartha C, Kranner R, Meirhofer M. Pyrolysis of sewage sludge to produce fuels and chemical feedstock. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2017

Rural electrification and capacity expansion with an integrated modeling approach

Hartvigsson E, Stadler M, Cardoso G. Rural electrification and capacity expansion with an integrated modeling approach. Renewable Energy by Elsevier. 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Sorghum, a sustainable feedstock for biogas production? Impact of climate, variety and harvesting time on maturity and biomass yield

Wannasek L Ortner M Amon B Amon T. Sorghum, a sustainable feedstock for biogas production? Impact of climate, variety and harvesting time on maturity and biomass yield. BIOMASS BIOENERG. 2017; 106: 137-145

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Contributions to trade journals | 2017

Startups in Kalifornien – Kollaborationsmodell im Energiebereich

Stadler M., Temper M., Haslinger W. Startups in Kalifornien – Kollaborationsmodell im Energiebereich. Impulsreferat Energy.Inc.Ubator, Start-ups als Katalysator in F&E für marktfähige Energiesystemlösungen. Co-Creation-Workshop. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie. Österreich, 22. September 2017.

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Conference Papers | 2017

State of the art dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in industrial scale

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. State of the art dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in industrial scale. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification, biogas steam reforming, and alkaline water electrolysis processes

Yao J, Kraussler M, Benedikt F, Hofbauer H. Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification, biogas steam reforming, and alkaline water electrolysis processes. Energy Conversion and Management. 1 August 2017;145: 278-292.

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Conference Papers | 2017

Upscaling and Operation of a Biomass Derived Fischer-Tropsch Pilot Plant Producing 1 Barrel Per Day

Loipersböck J, Weber G, Rauch R, Gruber H, Groß P, Hofbauer H. Upscaling and Operation of a Biomass Derived Fischer-Tropsch Pilot Plant Producing 1 Barrel Per Day. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Conference Papers | 2017

Wasserstoff aus Biomasse - Stand der Technik und Perspektiven

Hofbauer H, Bosch K, Kraussler M. Wasserstoff aus Biomasse - Stand der Technik und Perspektiven. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Other Publications | 2018

A flexible low cost PV/EV microgrid controller concept based on a Raspberry Pi

Stadler M. A flexible low cost PV/EV microgrid controller concept based on a Raspberry Pi. Working Paper, Center for Energy and innovative Technologies (CET) and Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, June 2018.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

A higher-order generalization of the NPK-method.

Birkelbach F, Deutsch M, Flegkas S, Winter F, Werner A. A higher-order generalization of the NPK-method. Thermochimica Acta, 9 January 2018;661:27-33.

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A novel algorithm to identify the full kinetic model of solid state reactions according to the General Kinetic Equation is presented. It is a higher-order generalization of the Non-Parametric Kinetics method (NPK-method) and allows for the simultaneous identification of the conversion, temperature and pressure dependency from any combination of measurements. As a model-free identification method, it does not rely on a-priori assumptions about the kinetic model. The result vectors can be used to identify the kinetic parameters by means of model fitting for each variable independently.

The steps of the algorithm are described and its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying it to simulated datasets. The kinetic parameters could be recovered very accurately from the test data, also in the presence of noise.

Overall the higher order NPK-method is a very promising approach to derive kinetic models from experimental data with a minimum of a-priori assumptions about the reaction.


Conference contributions | 2018

Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Innerhofer P, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018.

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Conference Papers | 2018

Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar Assisted Heating Systems

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar Assisted Heating Systems., Proceeding of Papers Vol1, p170-181 International conference on time series and forecasting, Granada, Spain, September 19-21, 2018.

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels

Neubauer, R, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Bitschnau B, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C. Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels. Journal of Power Sources. 1 May 2018, 385: 45-54.

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On-board desulfurization is essential to operate fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APU) with commercial fuels. In this work, both (i) on-board desulfurization and (ii) on-board regeneration performance of Ag-Al2O3 adsorbent is investigated in a comprehensive manner. The herein investigated regeneration strategy uses hot APU off-gas as the regeneration medium and requires no additional reagents, tanks, nor heat exchangers and thus has remarkable advantages in comparison to state-of-the-art regeneration strategies. The results for (i) show high desulfurization performance of Ag-Al2O3 under all relevant operating conditions and specify the influence of individual operation parameters and the combination of them, which have not yet been quantified. The system integrated regeneration strategy (ii) shows excellent regeneration performance recovering 100% of the initial adsorption capacity for all investigated types of fuels and sulfur heterocycles. Even the adsorption capacity of the most challenging dibenzothiophene in terms of regeneration is restored to 100% over 14 cycles of operation. Subsequent material analyses proved the thermal and chemical stability of all relevant adsorption sites under APU off-gas conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time 100% regeneration after adsorption of dibenzothiophene is reported over 14 cycles of operation for thermal regeneration in oxidizing atmospheres.


Conference Papers | 2018

Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation: Preliminary results of the "Flexi-Fuel-Gas-Control" Project

Antolini D, Hollenstein C, Martini S, Patuzzi F, Zemann C, Felsberger W, Baratieri M, Gölles M. Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation: Preliminary results of the "Flexi-Fuel-Gas-Control" Project. 7th International conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation. 2.-5. July 2018. Prague: Czech Republic.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Catalytic Efficiency of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves Evaluated by a Novel Measuring Methodology under Real-Life Operating Conditions

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Catalytic Efficiency of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves Evaluated by a Novel Measuring Methodology under Real-Life Operating Conditions. Renewable Energy, March 2018;117:300-313.

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Catalytic systems integrated in firewood stoves represent a potential secondary measure for emission reduction. However, the evaluation of catalytic efficiency is challenging since measurements, especially for PM emissions, upstream an integrated catalyst are not possible. Therefore, a special test facility, called “DemoCat”, was constructed which enabled parallel measurements in catalytically treated and untreated flue gas. The catalytic efficiency for CO, OGC and PM emissions was investigated under real-life operating conditions including ignition and preheating. The results confirmed a significant emission reduction potential (CO: > 95%, OGC: > 60%, PM: ∼30%). The conversion rates of CO and OGC emissions correlated with the space velocity and the coated area of honeycomb carriers which represent key parameters for the integration design. A quick response of the catalytic effect of around 5–12 min after ignition was observed when reaching 250 °C flue gas temperature at the catalyst. Most effective CO and OGC emission conversion was evident during the start-up and burn-out phase of a firewood batch. This reveals an important synergy for primary optimization which focuses particularly on the stretched intermediate phase of a combustion batch. The catalytic effect on PM emissions, especially on chemical composition, needs further investigations.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Cyanobacteria Biorefinery — Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with Synechocystis salina and utilisation of residual biomass

Meixner K, Kovalcik A, Sykacek E, Gruber-Brunhumer M, Zeilinger W, Markl K, Haas C, Fritz I, Mundigler N, Stelzer F, Neureiter M, Fuchs W, Drosg B. Cyanobacteria Biorefinery — Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with Synechocystis salina and utilisation of residual biomass. Journal of Biotechnology. 10 January 2018;265(10): 46-53

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Determination of off-gassing and self-heating potential of wood pellets - Method comparison and correlation analysis

Sedlmayer I, Arshadi M, Haslinger W, Hofbauer H, Larsson I, Lönnermark A, Pollex A, Schmidl C, Stelte W, Wopienka E, Bauer-Emhofer W. Determination of off-gassing and self-heating potential of wood pellets - Method comparison and correlation analysis. Fuel 2018;234:894-903.

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Several methods for identifying the phenomena of self-heating and off-gassing during production, transportation and storage of wood pellets have been developed in recent years. Research focused on the exploration of the underlying mechanisms, influencing factors or the quantification of self-heating or off-gassing tendencies. The present study aims at identifying a clear correlation between self-heating and off-gassing. Thus, different methods for determining self-heating and off-gassing potentials of wood pellets are compared. Therefore, eleven wood pellet batches from the European market were analyzed. For this investigation, three methods for the determination of self-heating, like isothermal calorimetry, oxi-press and thermogravimetric analysis, and four methods for off-gassing, like volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions measurements, gas phase analysis of stored pellets in a closed container by offline and by glass flask method and determination of fatty and resin acids content, were performed. Results were ranked according to the self-heating and off-gassing tendency providing a common overview of the analyzed pellets batches. Relations between different methods were investigated by Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the results revealed an equal suitability of offline and glass flask methods to predict off-gassing tendency and indicated a very significant correlation with isothermal calorimetry for the identification of self-heating tendency. The thermogravimetric analysis as well as the fatty and resin acids determination proved to be insufficient for the exclusive assessment of self-heating and off-gassing tendency, respectively.


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