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Conference contributions | 2009

Status of BioSNG Production and FT Fuels from Biomass Steam Gasification

Rauch R. Status of BioSNG Production and FT Fuels from Biomass Steam Gasification, 4th BTLtec Biomass to Liquids 2009, 24th-25th of September, 2009 Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Status of Development of Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass in Austria

Rauch R. Status of Development of Synthetic Biofuels from Biomass in Austria, Alternative Propulsion Systems and Energy Carriers 2009, 16th of October 2009, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Tar Content and Composition in Producer Gas of Fluidized Bed Gasification and Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Straw and Wood – Influence of Temperature

Aigner I, Wolfesberger U, Hofbauer H. Tar Content and Composition in Producer Gas of Fluidized Bed Gasification and Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Straw and Wood – Influence of Temperature, ICPS 2009, 1st-3rd of September 2009, Vienna, Austria.

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The global warming, the increasing CO2 emission, the combustion of and dependency on fossil
fuels, as well as the high-energy price have resulted in an increasing demand in renewable energy
sources. Biomass, as a renewable energy source, has the potential to contribute to the future energy
mix in various ways. In thermo-chemical biomass conversion processes, especially gasification and pyrolysis, the tar content and its composition is a major subject. Due to the various processes examined at VUT, this
work picks up the opportunity to compare the different tar amounts and compositions at different
temperatures and process parameters. The tar content and composition in the producer gas of steam
gasification of straw and wood as well as the tar yields of low temperature pyrolysis of straw are
displayed in the following work. Gasification experiments were carried out in a 100 kW dual fluidized bed steam gasifier at a temperature range of 700° C to 870° C. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted in a rotary kiln
reactor at temperatures between 600° C and 630° C. For better understanding of tar formation during thermo-chemical conversion of biomass the tar content and composition in the producer gas was analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. Main observation was that at higher temperatures the tar composition is shifted to higher molecular tars as poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Key tar components at lower temperatures (pyrolysis) are phenols. These results give the opportunity to analyse tar formation in different thermochemical conversion steps, therefore, for the future a better understanding of tar formation in large scale facility’s should be gained. This means lower tar content in the producer gas for gasification processes and an achievement of required pyrolysis oil yields for pyrolysis.


Contributions to trade journals | 2009

Tar content and composition in producer gas of fluidized bed gasification of wood - influence of temperature and pressure

Wolfesberger U, Aigner I, Hofbauer H. Tar content and composition in producer gas of fluidized bed gasification of wood-influence of temperature and pressure. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 2009;28(3):372-9.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2009

Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by chlorination

Fraissler G, Jöller M, Mattenberger H, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by chlorination. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 2009;48(1):152-64.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Unearthing waste`s potential for 100% renewable energy systems

Ragossnig A. Unearthing waste`s potential for 100% renewable energy systems. 5th SDEWES-conference 2009, 29th of September-3rd of October, Dubrovnik, Croatia.

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This paper focusses on the elaboration of the potential of the waste sector to contribute to the provision of 100% renewable energy systems. Waste is an abundant and locally available ressource and in many cases it is (at least partially) of biogenic origin, therefore pursuing political goals in waste management by energetic utilization of waste contributes towards achieving political goals in the energy as well as climate policy, too. However, it is shown based on the example of Austria that looking at energy systems on a national or international scale the waste sector is only able to contribute very little to the provision of the overall energy needed. It is different if one looks at specific energy systems in industrial sectors or on individual industrial sites. Here one must aknowledge that the energetic utilization of waste can have a high impact towards establishing renewable energy systems. Exemplarily this is shown by discussing the Austrian pulp & paper as well as the cement industry sector.


Other Presentations | 2009

Untersuchung der Fördercharakteristik von Schneckenförderern für eine Pelletabwurffeuerung

Ohnmacht, R. Untersuchung der Fördercharakteristik von Schneckenförderern für eine Pelletabwurffeuerung, Master Thesis, Technologische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2009.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Application Fields of Sensor-based Sorting in Waste Management - Limits and Research Demand

Faist V, Ragossnig A. Application Fields of Sensor-based Sorting in Waste Management - Limits and Research Demand, ISWA Annual Congress 2008, 3rd-6th of November, Singapur.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Biomass Gasification CHP Plant Güssing: Research Centre for 2nd Generation Biofuels

Aichernig C, Hofbauer H, Pfeifer CH, Rauch R. Biomass Gasification CHP Plant Güssing: Research Centre for 2nd Generation Biofuels, 16th European Biomass Conference 2008, 2nd-6th of June 2008, Valencia, Spain. p 731-735.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Biomassekleinfeuerungen – Überblick und Darstellung innovativer Entwicklungen

Haslinger W, Griesmayr S, Pointner CH, Friedl G. Biomassekleinfeuerungen – Überblick und Darstellung innovativer Entwicklungen, 8. Industrieforum Pellets 2008 / 8th Pellets Industry Forum 2008, 28th – 29th of October 2008, Stuttgart, Germany.

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This paper briefly discusses the relevance of small-scale biomass combustion systems for European renewable energy policy. Moreover, the state-of-the-art of modern small-scale biomass combustion systems is presented. The different technologies are reviewed regarding emissions and efficiency for different biomass. On-going developments and innovative approaches are presented and discussed.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2008

Challenges in small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels

Carvalho L, Lundgren J, Wopienka E. Challenges in small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels. International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment. 2008;9(1-3):127-42.

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Straw, Miscanthus, maize, and horse manure were reviewed in terms of fuel characteristics. They were tested in existing boilers, and the particulate and gaseous emissions were monitored. The ash was analyzed for the presence of sintered material. All the fuels showed problems with ash lumping and slag formation. Different boiler technologies showed different operational performances. Maize and horse manure are problematic fuels regarding NOx and particulate emissions. Miscanthus was the best fuel tested. Due to the big variation of fuel properties and therefore combustion behavior of agricultural biomass, further R&D is required to adapt the existing boilers for these fuels.


Conference contributions | 2008

Combustion and Gasification of solid biomass for heat and power production in Europe – State-of-the-Art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture)

Obernberger I, Thek G. Combustion and Gasification of solid biomass for heat and power production in Europe – State-of-the-Art and relevant future developments (keynote lecture), Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers 2008, 25th-28th of March 2008, Vilamoura, Portugal.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Die Situation der energetischen Nutzung von Stroh in Österreich

Eder G, Haslinger W, Wörgetter M. Die Situation der energetischen Nutzung von Stroh in Österreich, Fachtagung Strohenergie 2008, 29th-30th of March, Jena, Deutschland.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2008

Eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Rauchgas-Massenstroms in einer Biomasse-Feuerung

Bauer R, Gölles M, Brunner T, Dourdumas N, Obernberger I. Dynamic modelling of the heat transfer in a gas tube heat exchanger. At-Automatisierungstechnik. 2008;56(10):513-20.

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For an appropriate operation of a heat exchanger it is very helpful to know its dynamic behaviour. To this a simple sufficient accurate nonlinear model for the description of the dynamic behaviour is derived on the basis of a gas tube heat exchanger. Due to the general approach used for the derivation the model could be adaptet easily for other types of heat exchangers. The presented model can be used to estimate not measured physical values, to monitor the deposit formation in the heat exchanger and as a basis for the design of a model based control strategy. © Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.


Conference contributions | 2008

Evaluation of parameters determining PM emissions and their chemical composition in modern residential biomass heating appliances

Brunner T, Bärnthaler G, Obernberger I. Evaluation of parameters determining PM emissions and their chemical composition in modern residential biomass heating appliances, Int. Conf. World BIOENERGY 2008, 27th-29th of May 2008, Jönköping, Sweden.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2008

Experimental investigation of nitrogen species release from different solid biomass fuels as a basis for release models

Stubenberger G, Scharler R, Zahirović S, Obernberger I. Experimental investigation of nitrogen species release from different solid biomass fuels as a basis for release models. Fuel. 2008;87(6):793-806.

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Experimental data on the release of NOx precursors from solid biomass fuels during thermal conversion are necessary to study N release in general and to supply reliable data for the purpose of packed bed and gas phase conversion model development and validation. In this work the release of NOx precursors was studied at a lab-scale pot furnace (batch reactor) by taking measurements during the conversion process of solid biomass in a packed bed. The investigations were carried out with relevant woody biomass fuels, which cover a broad range of fuel N contents: sawdust, bark, waste wood and MDF board. The most important NOx precursor detected above the fuel bed under fuel rich conditions was NH3, while HCN was almost insignificant with the exception of sawdust. NO was detected mainly under air rich conditions. Furthermore, the experimental data were utilised to derive release functions for the relevant NOx precursors NO, NH3 and HCN. The release functions were implemented in an in-house empirical packed bed combustion model, which serves as a basis for a subsequent CFD N species gas phase calculation. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Contributions to trade journals | 2008

Modellierung des dynamischen Verhaltens der Wärmeübertragung in einem Rauchrohr-Wärmeübertrager

Bauer R, Gölles M, Brunner T, Dourdumas N, Obernberger I. Dynamic modelling of the heat transfer in a gas tube heat exchanger. At-Automatisierungstechnik. 2008;56(10):513-20.

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Other Presentations | 2008

Optimierung einer biomassebefeuerten 10 kWth-Mikro-Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung mit Thermoelektrischem Generator

Lohr, M. Optimierung einer biomassebefeuerten 10 kWth-Mikro-Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung mit Thermoelektrischem Generator, Master Thesis, Fachhochschule Oberösterreich, Wels, Austria, 2008.

Details

The availability of energy is important to our every day lives. Biomass-fuelled heating systems are comfortable and reach an efficiency form over 90 %. With a thermoelectric generator (TEG) it’s possible to convert a part of the heat directly into electrical power and so become self sufficient from electicity. The purpose of this thesis was to optimise an existing prototype of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant based on a pellet heating system and a thermoelectric generator. Balancing the energy flows, especially the losses, was also part of the thesis.
Tests with the prototype were done. Some with the originial prototype, some with additional insulation and some with preheating the combustion air. To examine the part load behaviour, tests were done at 10, 7 and 4 kW fuelheat input.
By insulating the TEG the performance rose from 153 W to 174 W. The insulation and the preheating of the combustion air from room temperature to 350 degree lead to an power output from 194 watt. All at 10 kW fuellheat input. Finally the following conclusions can be drawn: For the series product it is recommended to optimize the insulation of the TEG. As the preheating of the combustion air didn’t lead to the expected effects it should be left out.


Contributions to trade journals | 2008

Pelletfeuerungen mit thermoelektrischer Stromerzeugung

Friedl G, Moser W, Griesmayr S. Pelletfeuerungen mit thermoelektrischer Stromerzeugung, 10. Holzenergiesymposium 2008, 12th of September, Zürich, Swiss.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2008

Sewage Sludge Ash to phosphorus fertiliser: variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

Mattenberger H, Fraissler G, Brunner T, Herk P, Hermann L, Obernberger I. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment. Waste Manage. 2008;28(12):2709-22.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Straw pellets combustion in small-scale boilers. Part 1: Emissions and emission reduction with a novel heat exchanger technology.

Wopienka E, Schwabl M, Emhofer W, Friedl G, Haslinger W, Wörgetter M, Merkl R, Weissinger A. Straw pellets combustion in small-scale boilers. Part 1: Emissions and emission reduction with a novel heat exchanger technology, 16th European Biomass Conference 2008, 2nd-6th of June 2008, Valencia, Spain. p 1386-1392.

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Conference contributions | 2008

Straw pellets combustion in small-scale boilers. Part 2: Corrosion and material optimization.

Emhofer W, Wopienka E, Schwabl M, Friedl G. Straw pellets combustion in small-scale boilers. Part 2: Corrosion and material optimization, 16th European Biomass Conference 2008, 2nd-6th of June 2008, Valencia, Spain. p1500-1503.

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This paper presents one part of the results of a project dealing with straw pellets combustion in small
scale combustion systems. Whereas the other part of the work investigates gaseous and particulate emissions, this part focuses on the results of experiments to determine corrosion of refractory material. Three different types of straw
pellets are combusted in a prototype of a 15 kW residential heating boiler. The fuel samples are natural wheat straw,
wheat straw with alumina based additive and wheat straw with a mixture of calcium-/magnesium carbonate based
additive. Combustion experiments are performed under different operating conditions of the test boiler. Three
different types of refractory material are used as combustion chamber material. The refractory materials are different
mixtures of alumina, silica, zirconia and silicium-carbide. The degree of deterioration of these materials is
investigated for temperatures between 700 and 1300 deg C in the presence of slag formed during combustion of the
straw samples and the influence of the fuel additives on corrosion effects is analysed.


Other Presentations | 2008

Untersuchung der Staubemissionen einer Prototyp Strohpelletsfeuerung, sowie Ermittlung des Potentials einer Emissionsreduktion durch einen Brennwertwärmetauscher mit Wäscher

Schwabl, M. Untersuchung der Staubemissionen einer Prototyp Strohpelletsfeuerung, sowie Ermittlung des Potentials einer Emissionsreduktion durch einen Brennwertwärmetauscher mit Wäscher, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2008.

Details

The primary energy consumption world-wide is rising constantly. Therefore it is necessary to open up renewable resources for energy production. Besides wood, the application of agricultural resources and residuals for energy production is possible, also within the range of small scale combustion units. These fuels still pose a challenge, concerning gaseous and particulate emissions. This work examines the application of straw pellets in a small scale combustion unit. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as the separation eciency of a secondary heat exchanger with scrubber were investigated. Compared with wood-like fuels a strong slagging of the combustion chamber could be determined. Gaseous emissions as NOx, SO2 and HCl, as well as the emission of particles were clearly higher than with combustions of wood. The gaseous emissions were below the considered limit value for other biogenous fuels after Art. 15 a B-VG 2007 [1]. The burnout of the gaseous phase, which can be evaluated by the emission of CO, was always good and comparable with the combustion of wood.
Using a secondary heat exchanger with scrubber (Hydrocube R of the company Schräder ) particulate emissions could be reduced by 20%. Element analysis of the particulate emissions as well as particle size measurements showed that primarily large particles were separated. A retrot of the Hydrocube R by an ionizing electrode increased the degree of separation on 60%. Besides the separation of particles, the Hydrocube R also reduced gaseous emissions like SO2 and HCl. The absorption of these components in the condensate phase caused a decrease of the pH value. Low ph value increased the corrosion of the Hydrocube R , what could be detected by rising concentrations on Fe, Ni and Cr in the condensate.


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