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Conference contributions | 2010

Production of Synthetic Biofuels in existing Industry - Simulation of FICFB and Fischer - Tropsch - Process in IPSEpro

Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Production of Synthetic Biofuels in existing Industry - Simulation of FICFB and Fischer - Tropsch - Process in IPSEpro, ICPS 2010, 7th-9th of September 2010, Leipzig, Germany.

Details

In cooperation between Vienna University of Technology and Bioenergy 2020+ a project was done which had the objective to evaluate the prospects for the production of Biofuels by integration in existing Austrian biomass industry. The advantages of such integration are the good access to renewable energy resources like wood chips, existing infrastructure for electricity and heat, existing logistics of resources and the utilization of waste heat from Biofuel production to substitute fossil fuels. One work package included the process simulation of thermo-chemical biomass gasification and the production of a second generation Biofuel by the use of Fischer – Tropsch (FT) - synthesis. The process simulation tool IPSEpro was used for the simulation. The simulation of technical processes allows the prediction of the behavior of processes on the base of mathematical models. The quality of a simulation model depends substantially on the used model and the process parameters. The used technologies in the process simulation were the biomass gasification with the Fast Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed (FICFB) – gasification system and the Fischer –Tropsch (FT) - synthesis. The FICFB was developed by the Vienna University of technology. This gasification technology is used in the well known demonstration plant is Güssing (Austria). The produced product gas is nearly nitrogen free and has a high content of hydrogen (45 – 35 Vol%dry) and carbon monoxide (25 – 20 Vol%dry). These product gas components are used in the FT - synthesis for the production of FT – raw product. A FT - Trial Plant is also situated in Güssing since the year 2005. A slurry reactor is used in the Trial Plant for the FT – synthesis. The target for the simulation was the production of FT – raw product as well as the substitution of fossil fuels. The waste heat of the process should be used for the production of steam. An amount of 120 tons per hour of fossil produced steam should be substituted. The
Off-Gas of the FT – process was also used for the production of steam. Two different models for location number one were considered. The used fuel was wood chips. The data out of the simulation were used to calculate the economic efficiency of the plants. An important parameter was the price of the FT – raw product per liter. The total costs and the production capacity were set equal to calculate the marginal revenue. Also a sensitivity analysis was done to evaluate the effects of rising fuel costs and increased investment costs.


Conference contributions | 2010

Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis First Results of a 3 MW Pilot Plant

Kern S, Halwachs M, Pröll T, Kampichler G. Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis First Results of a 3 MW Pilot Plant, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3th-7th May 2010, Lyon, France. p 950-955.

Details

A pyrolysis process can be used to split up the biomass in a volatile fraction poor in undesired substances (Cl, N, S,
Na and K) and a char fraction where these substances are concentrated. In this way cheap biomass can be used for cofiring in existing fossil fuel power stations without the danger of corrosion, deposition, and emission problems. The aim of the project is the development and demonstration of a biomass pretreatment process based on pyrolysis in the temperature range between 450-650 °C to split the energy in the biomass into volatiles with a low content of the above mentioned undesired compounds and char, where most of these pollutants are concentrated. The balance of the system can provide important results, such as the development of the product spectrum by a function of the operating parameters. Based on the results of the pilot plant a scale up to a capacity of 30 MWth fuel input and the connection with the coal fired power plant is currently investigated.


Conference contributions | 2010

Rotary kiln pyrolysis- First results of a 3 MW pilot plant

Kern S, Halwachs M, Pröll T, Kampichler G. Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis First Results of a 3 MW Pilot Plant, IFC on IGCC and XtL 2010, 3rd-5th of May 2010, Dresden, Germany.

Details

A pyrolysis process can be used to split up the biomass in a volatile fraction poor in undesired substances (Cl, N, S,
Na and K) and a char fraction where these substances are concentrated. In this way cheap biomass can be used for cofiring in existing fossil fuel power stations without the danger of corrosion, deposition, and emission problems. The aim of the project is the development and demonstration of a biomass pretreatment process based on pyrolysis in the temperature range between 450-650 °C to split the energy in the biomass into volatiles with a low content of the above mentioned undesired compounds and char, where most of these pollutants are concentrated. The balance of the system can provide important results, such as the development of the product spectrum by a function of the operating parameters. Based on the results of the pilot plant a scale up to a capacity of 30 MWth fuel input and the connection with the coal fired power plant is currently investigated.


Contributions to trade journals | 2010

Sewage Sludge Ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

Mattenberger H, Fraissler G, Jöller M, Brunner T, Obernberger I, Herk P, et al. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): Influences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal. Waste Manage. 2010;30(8-9):1622-33.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Tapping the energy contained in waste for renewable energy provision - example of Austria

Ragossnig A. Tapping the energy contained in waste for renewable energy provision - example of Austria, International Work-Shop ENERGY & FUELS FROM WASTE & BIOMASS 2010, 5th of January 2010, Pucon, Chile.

Details


Conference contributions | 2010

The present state and future development of industrial biomass combustion for heat and power generation

Obernberger I. The present state and future development of industrial biomass combustion for heat and power generation, ASME-ATI-UIT 2010 Conference on Thermal and Environmental Issues in Energy Systems 2010, 16th-19th of May 2010, Sorrento, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Thermal Conversion of Biomass by Microwave Energy - First Results with Wood

Schrammel G, Paisler C, Krug H, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Thermal Conversion of Biomass by Microwave Energy - First Results with Wood, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3rd-7th May 2010, Lyon, France. p 907-910.

Details

By using a microwave generator as energy source wood gets converted into three products: (1) condensate (“product oil”), (2) product gas and (3) charcoal (“material residue”). In this microwave-based specific kind of pyrolysis process wood is used as standard input material in order to have the possibility to compare the three generated products either with products of already established conventional pyrolysis processes [1] or other processes like gasification within thermo-chemical conversion [2]. Therefore, a discontinuous microwave apparatus of technical standard size (magnetron power: 6 kW, magnetron frequency: 2.45 GHz) is used.


Conference contributions | 2010

Thermogravimetric Analysis and Devolatilisation Kinetics of New Biomass Fuels

Moradi F, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Thermogravimetric Analysis and Devolatilisation Kinetics of New Biomass Fuels, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. (visual presentation)

Details


Conference contributions | 2010

Trends and opportunities of micro-CHP technologies based on biomass combustion

Obernberger I. Trends and opportunities of micro-CHP technologies based on biomass combustion, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 1-9.

Details


Contributions to trade journals | 2010

Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

Zahirović S, Scharler R, Kilpinen P, Obernberger I. Validation of flow simulation and gas combustion sub-models for the CFD-based prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2011;15(1):61-87.

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Details

While reasonably accurate in simulating gas phase combustion in biomass grate furnaces, CFD tools based on simple turbulence-chemistry interaction models and global reaction mechanisms have been shown to lack in reliability regarding the prediction of NOx formation. Coupling detailed NOx reaction kinetics with advanced turbulence-chemistry interaction models is a promising alternative, yet computationally inefficient for engineering purposes. In the present work, a model is proposed to overcome these difficulties. The model is based on the Realizable k-ε model for turbulence, Eddy Dissipation Concept for turbulence-chemistry interaction and the HK97 reactionmechanism. The assessment of the sub-models in terms of accuracy and computational effort was carried out on three laboratory-scale turbulent jet flames in comparison with the experimental data. Without taking NOx formation into account, the accuracy of turbulence modelling and turbulence-chemistry interaction modelling was systematically examined on Sandia Flame D and Sandia CO/H2/N2 Flame B to support the choice of the associated models. As revealed by the Large Eddy Simulations of the former flame, the shortcomings of turbulence modelling by the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach considerably influence the prediction of the mixing-dominated combustion process. This reduced the sensitivity of the RANS results to the variations of turbulence-chemistry interaction models and combustion kinetics. Issues related to the NOx formation with a focus on fuel bound nitrogen sources were investigated on a NH3-doped syngas flame. The experimentally observed trend in NOx yield from NH3 was correctly reproduced by HK97, whereas the replacement of its combustion subset by that of a detailed reaction scheme led to a more accurate agreement, but at increased computational costs. Moreover, based on results of simulations with HK97, the main features of the local course of the NOx formation processes were identified by a detailed analysis of the interactions between the nitrogen chemistry and the underlying flow field. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Conference contributions | 2010

Valorisation of low grade Biomass to substitute fossil Fuels in a thermal Power Plant

Kern S, Halwachs M, Hofbauer H, Kampichler G. Valorisation of low grade Biomass to substitute fossil Fuels in a thermal Power Plant, WasteEng 2010, 17th-19th of May 2010, Peking, China.

Details

Minimizing carbon dioxide emissions whereas keeping up the high living standard of today is only possible by increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and the change to a mix of renewable fuels. Huge amounts of unused biomass in terms of agricultural residues like straw, that is a cheap and local feedstock, are often available. But as a reason of the high amount of corrosive ash elements (K, Cl, S), the residues are not suitable for co-firing in a thermal power plant. Therefore the feedstock is converted by low temperature pyrolysis into pyrolysis gases and charcoal. The aim of this work is to obtain fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach by the results of the pilot plant for co-firing the pyrolysis gases in a thermal power plant. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated since 2008. For the process, an externally heated rotary kiln reactor with a design fuel power of 3 MW is used. Several mass and energy balances have been calculated based on measured plant data for different operating points of the pilot plant. The high amount of pyrolysis oil in the gas has positive effects to the heating value of the pyrolysis gases. As a reason of that, cold gas efficiencies of more than 70 % are possible. Based on these results, a scale up to a next scale pyrolysis reactor with a capacity of 30 MWth fuel input is currently investigated.


Conference contributions | 2010

Wooden Biofuels in Europe – Quantities and Corrosion Relevant Characteristics.

Schmidl C, Humel S, Haslinger W, Friedl G. Wooden Biofuels in Europe – Quantities and Corrosion Relevant Characteristics, 18th European Biomass Conference 2010, 3rd-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 308-315.

Details


Contributions to trade journals | 2009

A cell agglomeration algorithm for accelerating detailed chemistry. In: Combustion Theory and Modelling

Goldin GM, Ren Z, Zahirovic S. A cell agglomeration algorithm for accelerating detailed chemistry in CFD. Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2009;13(4):721-39.

External Link

Details

A cell agglomeration algorithm is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of incorporating detailed chemical kinetics in multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Cells that are close in species and energy composition space are agglomerated before calling the reaction integrator, substantially reducing the number of chemistry integrations. The algorithm is generalized and applicable to any reacting flow configuration, and the accuracy is fully controllable. A dynamic hash table is used to efficiently bin cells into high dimensional hyper-cubes in composition space. The method is applied to four different CFD simulations and the speed-up and incurred error are assessed for a range of agglomeration tolerances and table dimensions. The proposed approach exhibits up to an order of magnitude speed-up with a relatively moderate decrease in accuracy.


Conference contributions | 2009

Assessing and Labelling the Eco-Efficiency of Small Scale Biomass Combustion Systems - BIOHEATLABEL

Haslinger W, Griesmayr S, Strasser C, Lingitz A, Jungmeier G. Assessing and Labelling the Eco-Efficiency of Small Scale Biomass Combustion Systems – BIOHEATLABEL, 17th European Biomass Conference 2009, 29th of June-3rd of July 2009, Hamburg, Germany. p 2335-2340.

Details

The project BioHeatLABEL aims at the derivation of eco-design criteria for small scale biomass
combustion systems. It is a mirror project to the on-going European preparatory study for solid fuel small combustion installations. The presented paper gives an overview of the on-going work. It presents the applied methodologies so far. Sales and performance data as well as prices are collected for the existing stock as well as for new products. Six Base Cases are defined to best possibly represent market relevant product categories. These Base Cases are (1) log wood boilers with natural draught, (2) log wood boilers with forced draught, (3) wood chips boilers, (4) wood pellets boilers, (5) log wood stoves, and (6) wood pellets stoves. For these product categories the bills of production materials as well as for packaging are collected and information about the end-of-life behaviour is retrieved. Based on the above, preliminary life cycle assessment calculations are performed using the tool EuP EcoReport. The usability of this tool for a sound, reliable and representative life cycle assessment is discussed. Finally, an outlook on the further work is given.


Conference contributions | 2009

Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

Rauch R. Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification, Gasification 2009 –gas clean up and treatment, 22th-23th of October 2009, Clarion Hotel Sign, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Climate Impact of a Private Company`s Choice, Poster

Ragossnig A, Wartha C, Pomberger R. Climate Impact of a Private Company`s Choice, Poster, Waste & Climate 2009, 7th-18th of September, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Details


Conference contributions | 2009

Comparative Characterisation of High Temperature Aerosols in Waste Wood Fired Fixed-Bed and Fluidised-Bed Combustion Systems

Obernberger I, Fluch J, Brunner T. Comparative Characterisation of High Temperature Aerosols in Waste Wood Fired Fixed-Bed and Fluidised-Bed Combustion Systems, 17th European Biomass Conference 2009, 29th of June-3rd of July 2009, Hamburg, Germany. p 1189-1199.

Details


Conference contributions | 2009

Destination-process-specific Optimization of Waste Processing Using Innovative Treatment Technology

Ragossnig A. Destination-process-specific Optimization of Waste Processing Using Innovative Treatment Technology, ISWA Annual Congress 2009, 12th-15th of October, Lissabon, Portugal.

Details

Driven by increasing energy and raw material prices as well as changes in the legal framework the state of the art in the European Union has changed from waste management to resource management over the past 15 years. This has led to a higher appreciation of the resource “waste” as a secondary raw material as well as an energy resource. In this context the importance of effective waste processing in order to allow quality specific routing of waste streams has become very important. On the one hand material recycling requires a high purity of the waste material to be recycled. The prices to be achieved for the recycling material are highly dependend on the purity of the recyclables. The economic viability of treatment concepts very much depends on the rate of recovery of the recycling product. On the other hand the portion of waste that is thermally treated has increased and still is on the rise. Furthermore extensive efforts on the usage of waste fractions as Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) in alternative thermal treatment processes with higher energy recovery are being undertaken. Alternative thermal treatment
processes have special demands on the quality of the waste streams to be treated due to process and product quality reasons as well as ecological concerns. Sophisticated waste pre-treatment concepts ensure compliance with required quality standards of wastes to be recycled or utilized energetically. In spite of that waste pre-treatment - in sometimes complex processes - the problem of disposal of the remaining residual waste fraction has to be solved, as the disposal of the residuals in compliance with the regulatory framework causes high expenses for the waste treatment plant operator. The first part of this manuscript focusses on the legal framework prompting the implementation of new waste processing technologies allowing an effective routing of waste fractions by material specific splitting of the over all waste stream. Most relevant in that respect are the EU Waste Framework Directive as well as the EU Landfill Directive and the EU Packaging Directive. Climate
policy and respective regulations are also influencing waste management practice. Additionally economic aspects for destination-process specific routing of waste streams are being addressed. In the second part of this manuscript the set-up of test runs as well as the results obtained and experiences gained based on the test runs are being reported. One test set-up aims at removing highcaloric waste components from waste streams of Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) facilities in order to maximize the quantity of waste that can be landfilled. A second test set up deals with the processing of commercial plastic waste containing different types of polymers in order to gain pure recyclables. As the economic value of waste plastic depends on the purity in terms of individual polymers it is very important to separate individual polymers from mixed plastic waste. Near-Infrared
(NIR) sensor based sorting allows a separation of different types of plastics. The results of test runs are explained in terms of quality and yield of product gained as well as economical aspects. Although the prices for recyclables have fallen during the last months as a result of the financial and economical crisis leading to a decrease in the demand of recyclables it is assumed that gaining high quality waste fractions from mixed wastes for material recyling as well as energy recovery will become more important in the long run.


Conference contributions | 2009

Efficient utilisation of industrial residues and waste with high biomass content using gasification technology

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Efficient utilisation of industrial residues and waste with high biomass content using gasification technology, 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibiton 2010, 3th-7th of May 2010, Lyon, France. p 544-547.

Details


Conference contributions | 2009

Einsatz der sensorgestützten Sortiertechnik zur Senkung des Brennwerts der Deponiefraktion in MBA Anlagen

Faist V, Ragossnig A. Einsatz der sensorgestützten Sortiertechnik zur Senkung des Brennwerts der Deponiefraktion in MBA Anlagen, Waste-to-Ressources 2009, 5th-8th of May 2009, Hannover, Deutschland.

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Other Presentations | 2009

First test runs and tar analyses of a low temperature pyrolysis

Wolfesberger, U. First test runs and tar analyses of a low temperature pyrolysis, Master Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Details

The global warming, the increasing CO2 emission, the combustion and dependency on fossil fuels, as well as the high-energy prices have resulted in an increasing demand in renewable energy sources. Biomass, as a renewable energy source, has the potential to contribute to the future energy mix in many countries. In this thesis the so-called low temperature or slow pyrolysis is chosen to convert biomass into energy rich products. Pyrolysis is a process to convert biomass directly into solid, liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The goal of the pilot plant Dürnrohr is to generate a combustible gas to substitute fossil fuels in the thermal power plant Dürnrohr. The complete process consists of individual steps. First of all the biomass is pyrolysed and pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis char are produced. The obtained pyrolysis gas is combusted in a fluidized bed combustion chamber implemented as afterburner. The following step is fluidized bed combustion of
the intermediate-stored pyrolysis char. Due to the use of different biomasses and adjustment of the individual steps, the process should be optimized for the application for the power plant Dürnrohr. One major point of the production of the pyrolysis gas is the amount of tar. The tar amount was analyzed during pyrolysis operation to find out how much tar is produced at which process settings with a main focus on the temperature. The gravimetric
analysis included gravimetric tar, dust, entrained char, water content and ph-value, as well as the GC/MS tars of the pyrolysis gas. All these data was sampled, analyzed and evaluated as well as discussed.


Contributions to trade journals | 2009

Influence of dry and humid gaseous atmosphere on the thermal decomposition of calcium chloride and its impact on the remove of heavy metals by chlorination

Fraissler G, Jöller M, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Influence of dry and humid gaseous atmosphere on the thermal decomposition of calcium chloride and its impact on the remove of heavy metals by chlorination. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 2009;48(1):380-8.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Low temperature pyrolysis is used to substitute fossil fuels in a thermal power plant

Halwachs M, Kampichler G, Hofbauer H. Low temperature pyrolysis is used to substitute fossil fuels in a thermal power plant, 17th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, CCH-Congress Center Hamburg 2009, 29th of June-3rd of July 2009, Hamburg, Germany. p 1062-1064.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues - first results of a pilot plant

Halwachs M, Kampichler G, Kern St, Hofbauer H. Low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues - first results of a pilot plant, ICPS 2009, 1st-3rd of September 2009, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Micro-CHP – Experiences with thermoelectric generators integrated in a wood pellet combustion unit

Friedl G, Moser W, McCarry A, Berndt K, Schöpke R. Micro-CHP – Experiences with thermoelectric generators integrated in a wood pellet combustion unit, 28th International_and 7th European_Conference_on_Thermoelectrics 2009, 26th-30th of July, 2009, Freiburg, Germany

Details

Wood pellet combustion units are a comfortable, full automatic and low emission solution for the provision of space heating in small scale applications. The requirement of an auxiliary energy source for the heat supply and distribution however results in a dependence on the electrical grid. The goal of this work is thereby to eliminate this dependence and to meet the auxiliary energy demand through the independent production of electrical energy. The thermoelectric power production method was chosen from a number of technology variations so as to guarantee the silent and maintenance free production of direct current that can be implemented in cellars and space heaters. The first development step was the implementation of a Prototype with a fuel heat input of 10 kW and a nominal electrical power of 200 W. The central point of the implementation was the integration of a thermo-generator in a pellet combustion unit and the subsequent evaluation of the system concept. The integrated system implemented in the prototype confirms the feasibility of the combination of these technologies. The electrical efficiency of the thermo-generator was found to be in accordance with the target value of 4%, corresponding to a produced nominal electric power of 200 W.


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