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Conference contributions | 2014

Synergies of Wastewater and Microalgae Cultivation

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D, Bochmann G, Drosg B, Schagerl M. Synergies of Wastewater and Microalgae Cultivation, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2014, 26th-28th of February 2014, Wels, Austria.

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Current international research results identify microalgae as a new and promising feedstock for the global energy supply chain. A novel concept to reduce costs and cover the need of water and nutrients is the combination of wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation. In Austria in particular brewery and dairy effluents as well as municipal wastewater would be suitable for algae cultivation. Cultivation systems practical for the use of wastewater are High Rate Algal Ponds (open system, suspended culture), Algal Turf Scrubbers (open system, immobilized culture) and Photobioreactors (closed systems, suspended culture). The cultivation of microalgae in general and the special case of wastewater as nutrient source face a variety of challenges either concerning the accumulation of microalgal cells in wastewater (upstream process) or their removal and processing (downstream process). Taking a look at the whole production chain shows that for effluents of breweries, dairies
and smale-scale municipal wastewater no feasible concept for the combination of microalgae cultivation and wastewater treatment can be designed. A promising production concept for large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants are HRAPs or biofilm production in ATS systems for energetic and material pathways. Various R&D challenges are to overcome to lead to an optimization and further development of technologies for combined wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation in Austria.


Conference contributions | 2013

Synthetic biofuels – do they have a future?

Rauch R. Synthetic biofuels – do they have a future? 8th A3PS Conference Eco-Mobility 2013, 4th of October 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

System performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler

Aigenbauer S, Hartl M, Malenkovic I, Simetzberger A, Vverma VK, Schmidl C. System performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 1320-1324.

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A pellet burner directly integrated into the solar storage provides heat and domestic hot water for small
residential applications in an environment-friendly way. The objective of this work was to evaluate the system
performance of a storage integrated pellet boiler in laboratory under transient test conditions. Furthermore, the type
test results according to ÖNORM EN 303-5 [1] of the last decade were compared with monitoring data of systems
with separated boiler and heat storage. The laboratory tests allowed finding relevant parameters and losses, which
influence the system performance. A developed computer simulation model shows the potential to optimize the
performance of the investigated boiler.


Scientific Journals | 2018

Tackling ammonia inhibition for efficient biogas production from chicken manure: Status and technical trends in Europe and China

Fuchs W, Wang X, Gabauer W, Ortner M, Li Z. Tackling ammonia inhibition for efficient biogas production from chicken manure: Status and technical trends in Europe and China (Review). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018;97:186-199.

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The increased global consumption of chicken products has resulted in the generation of huge amounts of manure. Numerous studies emphasized the large potential of this waste as an untapped source of renewable energy through anaerobic digestion (AD). However, intrinsic difficulties, in particular the high N content, induce instable process conditions, including the accumulation of intermediates, and foaming, which reduces methane yields. Such issues limit the widespread application of this energy-rich substrate for biogas production. The process inhibition by ammonia is usually prevented by reducing the concentration of chicken manure through dilution or by operating the plant considerably below its theoretical reactor capacity. However, this process compromises process efficiency, thereby increasing capital investments and operational costs. Another option to achieve optimal process performance is co-digestion with less N-rich materials. However, co-digestion also has its limitations due to the frequent unavailability of sufficient amounts of C-rich substrates. A series of promising technical solutions have been developed to overcome the aforementioned bottlenecks. Examples include stripping or membrane extraction as means to reduce ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Several full-scale plants employing ammonia removal techniques have been installed recently. Latest research also investigated the use of additives, such as zeolites and trace elements, as well as bioaugmentation, to mitigate ammonia inhibition. The current study reviews the state of technology as well as recent achievements and perspectives. It provides an overview of the different approaches to remove ammonia from AD-process and presents practical examples from China and Europe.


Conference contributions | 2010

Tapping the energy contained in waste for renewable energy provision - example of Austria

Ragossnig A. Tapping the energy contained in waste for renewable energy provision - example of Austria, International Work-Shop ENERGY & FUELS FROM WASTE & BIOMASS 2010, 5th of January 2010, Pucon, Chile.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Tar Content and Composition in Producer Gas of Fluidized Bed Gasification and Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Straw and Wood – Influence of Temperature

Aigner I, Wolfesberger U, Hofbauer H. Tar Content and Composition in Producer Gas of Fluidized Bed Gasification and Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Straw and Wood – Influence of Temperature, ICPS 2009, 1st-3rd of September 2009, Vienna, Austria.

Details

The global warming, the increasing CO2 emission, the combustion of and dependency on fossil
fuels, as well as the high-energy price have resulted in an increasing demand in renewable energy
sources. Biomass, as a renewable energy source, has the potential to contribute to the future energy
mix in various ways. In thermo-chemical biomass conversion processes, especially gasification and pyrolysis, the tar content and its composition is a major subject. Due to the various processes examined at VUT, this
work picks up the opportunity to compare the different tar amounts and compositions at different
temperatures and process parameters. The tar content and composition in the producer gas of steam
gasification of straw and wood as well as the tar yields of low temperature pyrolysis of straw are
displayed in the following work. Gasification experiments were carried out in a 100 kW dual fluidized bed steam gasifier at a temperature range of 700° C to 870° C. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted in a rotary kiln
reactor at temperatures between 600° C and 630° C. For better understanding of tar formation during thermo-chemical conversion of biomass the tar content and composition in the producer gas was analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. Main observation was that at higher temperatures the tar composition is shifted to higher molecular tars as poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Key tar components at lower temperatures (pyrolysis) are phenols. These results give the opportunity to analyse tar formation in different thermochemical conversion steps, therefore, for the future a better understanding of tar formation in large scale facility’s should be gained. This means lower tar content in the producer gas for gasification processes and an achievement of required pyrolysis oil yields for pyrolysis.


Contributions to trade journals | 2009

Tar content and composition in producer gas of fluidized bed gasification of wood - influence of temperature and pressure

Wolfesberger U, Aigner I, Hofbauer H. Tar content and composition in producer gas of fluidized bed gasification of wood-influence of temperature and pressure. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 2009;28(3):372-9.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification, biogas steam reforming, and alkaline water electrolysis processes

Yao J, Kraussler M, Benedikt F, Hofbauer H. Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification, biogas steam reforming, and alkaline water electrolysis processes. Energy Conversion and Management. 1 August 2017;145: 278-292.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2014

Techno-economic study of a heat pump enhanced flue gas heat recovery for biomass boilers

Hebenstreit B, Schnetzinger R, Ohnmacht R, Höftberger E, Lundgren J, Haslinger W, et al. Techno-economic study of a heat pump enhanced flue gas heat recovery for biomass boilers. Biomass Bioenergy. 2014;71:12-22.

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An active condensation system for the heat recovery of biomass boilers is evaluated. The active condensation system utilizes the flue gas enthalpy exiting the boiler by combining a quench and a compression heat pump. The system is modelled by mass and energy balances. This study evaluates the operating costs, primary energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions on an Austrian data basis for four test cases. Two pellet boilers (10kW and 100kW) and two wood chip boilers (100kW and 10MW) are considered. The economic analysis shows a decrease in operating costs between 2% and 13%. Meanwhile the primary energy efficiency is increased by 3-21%. The greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents are calculated to 15.3-27.9kg MWh-1 based on an Austrian electricity mix. The payback time is evaluated on a net present value (NPV) method, showing a payback time of 2-12 years for the 10MW wood chip test case. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Technical Reports | 2016

Technology Overview

Strasser C. Technology Overview. New York State Wood Heat Report: An Energy, Environmental, and Market Assessment - Final Report. April 2016. Chapter 8; 141-206.

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Conference contributions | 2012

The actual need of a guideline for sampling and analysis of chemical matter (not tars) from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas

Zeisler J, Kleinhappl M, Martini S, Neubauer Y. The actual need of a guideline for sampling and analysis of chemical matter (not tars) from product gas, pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. p 919-925.

Details

Due to the increasing number of different online and offline methods and procedures for sampling at gasification and pyrolysis plants a comparison of the measured values is difficult. About the sampling of tars already a number of detailed guidelines and a common approach are established [2]. In terms of discrete chemical impurities the missing of a guideline for sampling at biomass¬ plants is an obstacle for implementing sampling systems in new plants or experimental assemblies. Nevertheless the knowledge is available at several institutions but it has to be collected. Within this paper the basic challenges of sampling are mentioned, the system at Bioenergy2020+ is explained in detail and about the parameters NH3, H2S & HCN useful results of optimisation are reported. This status should help to point out the need of a reliable library of methods. According the first systematisation of offline and online sampling respectively detection a table of application is proposed. The detailed knowledge for this will be treated and exchanged within an established working group which should lead to a guideline (at least methods library) for sampling of trace components as described.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

The behavior of biomass and char particles in a dual fluidized bed gasification system

Kraft S, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. The behavior of biomass and char particles in a dual fluidized bed gasification system. Powder Technology 2018;338:887-897.

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Biomass gasification in fluidized beds is a complex process in which particles occur in a wide range of size and density. In this paper, the mixing behavior of the char, biomass and bed material in a gasification reactor of a typical dual fluidized bed (DFB) system was investigated in a cold flow model. Experiments with ternary mixtures were performed in which the size and the density of the used particles were varied. For the experiments, a cold flow model was constructed with a full bed material recirculation loop, similar to DFB systems. Experiments revealed that at low fluidization velocities, the smaller char particles and biomass particles occur more preferentially in the bed material recirculation stream. If the fluidization velocities are increased, this tendency diminishes. Furthermore, the experiments showed that the mass fraction of biomass particles in the recirculation stream is always higher than that of the lighter char particles. It is also shown that the current design of the gasification reactor in DFB systems is not optimal. A way to overcome this issue in existing plants is presented.

Contributions to trade journals | 2014

The Biomass Technology Roadmap of the RHC-Platform: Priorities for high efficient large-scale CHP units

Grammelis P, Goodwin N, Alakangas E, Haslinger W, Karampinis E. The Biomass Technology Roadmap of the RHC-Platform: Priorities for high efficient large-scale CHP units. VGB PowerTech. 2014;6:74-79.

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Die europäische Technologie-Plattform für Heizen und Kühlen mit erneuerbaren Energien (RHC-Plattform, www.rhc-platform.org) fördert die Forschung und Entwicklung bei der Wärme- und Kälteproduktion aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen in der EU. Die verschiedenen Endanwendungen (Strom und/oder Bereitstellung von Wärme, Kraftstoff) setzen eine Verdoppelung der Biomassenutzung voraus, um die 20-20-20-Ziele der EU zu erreichen. Neue Ressourcen müssen erschlossen, mobilisiert und der Wirkungsgrad der Umwandlungsprozesse gesteigert werden. In Biomasse-Heizkraftwerken sowie Heizwerken werden derzeit mehr als ein Drittel des gesamten Biomasseaufkommens eingesetzt. Dies führt zu neuen, gemeinsamen Herausforderungen für den Strom- und Wärmesektor.
Das Biomasse-Panel der RHC-Plattform hat Schwerpunkte für Forschung und Entwicklung definiert, um bestimmte Kennzahlen für Biomassewertschöpfungsketten zu erreichen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Prioritäten für die Bestandteile der Wertschöpfungsketten vor, die relevant für den Strombereich sind:
a) nachhaltige und kosten-effiziente Biomasseversorgungsketten, b) thermisch behandelte Biomasse-Brennstoffe und c) hoch-effiziente KWK-Anlagen.
Herausforderungen für den Anlagenbetrieb sind Brennstoffflexibilität, Wirkungsgraderhöhung über den vollen Lastbereich, Betrieb mit variablen Brennstoffen und Qualitäten bei variablen Lastzuständen, höhere Betriebsparameter für Dampf und andere Wärmeträger, höhere Anlagenverfügbarkeit, Reduktion von unerwünschten gas- und partikelförmigen Emissionen und schließlich die Ascheverwertung.
 


Technical Reports | 2018

The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Riepl R, Schipfer F, Zellinger M. The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. BMVIT, Schriftenreihe 25/2018.

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Conference contributions | 2018

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae. presentation at the WSED, Wels, Austria, 01. March 2018.

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The present study examines the possible use of urban and rural traffic areas for producing biomass. Many of those areas (for example, parking lots at cinemas and shopping centers) are only intensively used during certain times. Most of the time those areas remain empty.
At the same time a major problem for large-scale implementation of renewable energy is the massive land use resulting from limited energy density of solar radiation and, in case of biomass production, low efficiency for utilization of solar radiation by plants. Additionally, renewable energies are often criticized for the fact that they require areas, which could also be used for food and feed production.
Therefore, it is an attractive idea to use some of the traffic areas that are lost for the ecosystem anyway for biomass production. This approach is novel that no data have been available yet. The aim of this work was therefore to develop technical solutions, to quantify the technical potential for this type of biomass production and, subsequently, for energy supply, based on data on the area utilization, climatic data and known properties of microalgae.
The work deals with the question of the technical potential for this approach in Austria. This question is
answered by a survey of the area data in Austria, the elaboration of technical systems for a possible implementation, as well as by calculating the biomass potential, based on simulation results. The data have been collected, analyzed and evaluated in a comprehensive literature search. The potential analysis provides an overview of the distribution of traffic areas in Austria and the resulting biomass potential. Thus, a list of possible areas including biomass and energy quantities is available.


Conference contributions | 2017

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of microalgae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of microalgae. Presentation at the Eco City Summit 2017, Melbourne, Australia, 17. June 2017.

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Other Presentations | 2017

The Green Parking Space – Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Schipfer F, Lichtenegger K, Zellinger M et al. The Green Parking Space – Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. Präsentation. First Vienna Vertical Farming Meetup 01.03.2017, Wien.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

The influence of oxygen availability on off-gassing rates of emissions from stored wood pellets

Meier F, Sedlmayer I, Emhofer W, Wopienka E, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Hofbauer H. The influence of oxygen availability on off-gassing rates of emissions from stored wood pellets. Energy & Fuels. 18 February 2016;30(2): 1006-1012.

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The phenomenon of off-gassing from wood pellets during storage has been the cause of several, in some cases fatal, accidents due to toxic atmospheres in storages. To optimize safety measures the nature of the responsible processes needs to be clarified. In this study the impact of O2 availability, which is a decisive factor for the presumed oxidation of fatty acids, is pointed out. Off-gassing rates of CO, CO2, VOC, and CH4 of pellets at relatively constant O2 levels of approximately 35%, 20%, and <1% over a period of 20 d at approximately 295 K were investigated. For this purpose 7 kg of spruce pellets was stored under simulated ventilation of the atmosphere in a 31 L tank. Gas concentrations were determined every 24 h by GC-FID/TCD. Compared to the mean emission rates at 35% O2 of CO (0.22 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h) and CO2 (0.76 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h) the lowest O2 concentration of <1% resulted in a significant reduction of off-gassing rates of 40% for both gases. In contrast the release rates of VOCs and also CH4 decreased with the higher O2 concentration (0.035 to 0.025 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h; 0.0085 to 0.0061 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h), presumably, because of increased onward reactions to CO and CO2. Since off-gassing was not prevented by the lack of O2 (<1% O2-trial) it is assumed that the O2 required for the reactions originated from the biomass itself. During the storage of pellets at 20% O2, emission rates of CO (0.18 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h) and CO2 (0.79 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h) at the start decreased by more than 20% and those for VOCs (0.032 mg kg–1pelletsd.b. in 24 h) by almost 30% after 3 weeks. It can be assumed that in ventilated storages the reactivity and thus a potential risk from off-gases from wood pellets decreases considerably in only a few weeks. The effects of aging, in terms of declining reactivity at relatively constant tank conditions, on off-gassing rates could be clarified for the first time. A realistic development of the decline of reactivity of the material itself could be determined.


Conference contributions | 2015

The Influence of Wood Pellet Prices on Heat Generation Costs of Alternative Heating Systems

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Schmid E. The Influence of Wood Pellet Prices on Heat Generation Costs of Alternative Heating Systems, 23rd European Biomass Conference 2015, 1st-4th of June 2015, Vienna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

The interplay of self-reflection, social interaction and random events in the dynamics of opinion flow in two-party democracies

Lichtenegger K, Hadzibeganovic T. The interplay of self-reflection, social interaction and random events in the dynamics of opinion flow in two-party democracies. International Journal of Modern Physics C. 1 May 2016;27(5).

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We propose a continuous process opinion formation model to study the dynamics of a multi-level relationship between voters, political parties, and facts in two-party democratic elections. In our model, opinions can take any real value between two extremes and an unaligned, moderate opinion state without a preference. Starting with a random opinion configuration, individual voter opinions evolve and change over time due to self-reflection, inter-personal communication, external media influence, and noise. Parties are influenced by their own ideologies, facts, and voters’ opinions. Elections are held periodically and the party that is closer in opinion to the majority of voters forms the new government. The government policy is then expected to be in proximity to the voter opinions and the policies of the currently ruling political party. We analyze the tension of opinions as a measure of how dramatically opinions can disagree within a given sample of voters and the success of the government and parties as the degree of coincidence between the policies and facts. Our model generates realistic quasi-periodic alternations between incumbents and challengers that are typical for two-party systems. Moreover, our model shows that relative to other voters’ strategies, conscious voting can lead to more successful governments of not only fact-oriented but also pragmatic and balanced political parties, irrespective of the strategies of the competing opposition parties. In addition, our simulations uncover several interesting features including less victories for strictly ideological or fact-oriented parties unless they include some aspects of populism or pragmatism. In this sense, our model can also describe situations where election outcomes are not necessarily based on votes for the current programs of competing parties and their placement on relevant issues, but instead result from voters’ dissatisfaction with the previous government and the votes against it.


Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129183116500650

Contributions to trade journals | 2013

The mechanism of bed material coating in dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plants and its impact on plant optimization

Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. The mechanism of bed material coating in dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plants and its impact on plant optimization. Powder Technol. 2013;245:94-104.

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The bed material and especially its catalytic activity plays an important role in biomass steam gasification in dual fluidized bed gasifiers. The bed material is modified by interaction with biomass ash during operation of the gasification plant forming layers at the particles which are induced by the biomass ash. Optimization of dual fluidized biomass steam gasification will have significant influence on the process variables such as temperatures, inorganic composition and product gas composition. The influence of these changes on layer formation is still unknown. This paper summarizes results of investigations about bed material characteristics taken from the industrial-scale biomass steam gasification plant in Güssing where woody biomass is used as fuel. Analyses of the surface and the crystal structures of the bed material particles treated in gasification and combustion atmospheres were carried out. The thermal behavior of used olivine and fresh olivine in different atmospheres was analyzed. A suggestion for the mechanism of formation of the layers is presented and the influence of possible optimization measures is discussed. A change in the elemental composition of the surface was not detectable but a slight change in the crystal structure. Thermal investigations show a weak endothermic weight loss with used olivine in a CO2-rich atmosphere which could not be determined with fresh olivine. The formation of layers at the olivine particles is considered to be caused by the intensive contact with burning char particles in the combustion reactor. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

The positive effects of bed material coating on tar reduction in a dual fluidized bed gasifier

Kirnbauer F, Wilk V, Kitzler H, Kern S, Hofbauer H. The positive effects of bed material coating on tar reduction in a dual fluidized bed gasifier. Fuel. 2012;95:553-562.

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The utilization of biomass for the substitution of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in biomass steam gasification plants is a promising technology for the production of electricity, heat, and fuels for transportation. Experience from industrial scale dual fluidized bed steam gasification plants showed a modification of the bed material due to the interaction of the bed material (olivine) with biomass ash components and additives. In this paper the influence of bed material modification on the gasification properties of used olivine from an industrial scale plant in Güssing is compared with the case of fresh olivine. The trials were carried out under similar conditions in a pilot plant at the Vienna University of Technology. The pilot plant trials showed an increase in hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the product gas with the used bed material while the content of carbon monoxide in the product gas decreased. The exothermal water–gas shift reaction is enhanced by the used bed material, resulting in a lower energy demand for the gasification. Tar content was decreased by around 80% for tars detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the composition of the tar showed less components during the trial with used bed material.

The results obtained with the used bed material at the 100 kW pilot plant are in good agreement with those for the 8 MW industrial plant in Güssing, confirming good scale-up properties from the 100 kW plant to industrial scale plants.


Conference contributions | 2010

The present state and future development of industrial biomass combustion for heat and power generation

Obernberger I. The present state and future development of industrial biomass combustion for heat and power generation, ASME-ATI-UIT 2010 Conference on Thermal and Environmental Issues in Energy Systems 2010, 16th-19th of May 2010, Sorrento, Italy.

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Conference Papers | 2015

The role of 1H-indene in product gas of biomass gasification

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. The role of 1H-indene in product gas of biomass gasification. International Bioenergy Exhibition and Asian Bioenergy Conference 2015. October 2015, Shanghai, China.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

The Role of Leak Air in a Double-Wall Chimney

Lichtenegger K, Hebenstreit B, Pointner C, Schmidl C, Höftberger E. The role of leak air in a double-wall chimney. Heat Mass Transfer. 2015;51(6):787-94.

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In modern buildings with tight shells, often room-independent air supply is required for proper operation of biomass stoves. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with flue gas leaving through the pipe and fresh air entering through the annular gap. A one-dimensional quasi-static model based on balance equations has been developed and compared with experimental data. Inclusion of leak air is crucial for reproduction of the experimental results. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


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