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Conference contributions | 2013

Applicability and slag formation survey of different biomass fuel qualities in small scale combustion – a Substudy in the EU FP7-SME project AshMelT

Schwabl M, Feldmeier S, Nagelhofer K, Wopienka E, Haslinger W. Applicability and slag formation survey of different biomass fuel qualities in small scale combustion – a Substudy in the EU FP7-SME project AshMelT, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1156-1159.

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Scientific Journals | 2017

Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst.

Krycaa J, Priščák J, Łojewskac J, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2018, 346: 113-119.

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Substitution of fossil fuels for production of electricity, heat, fuels for transportation and chemicals can be realized using biomass steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB).

Interaction between biomass ash and bed material in a fluidized bed leads to transformation of the bed particle due to enrichment of components from the biomass ash resulting in the development of ash layers on the bed particle surface. These ash-rich particle layers enhance the catalytic activity of the bed material regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the reduction of tars.

The water-gas-shift reaction at conditions typical for dual fluidized bed biomass gasification at a temperature of 870 °C was investigated. Diffusion and heat transfer limitations were minimized using a lab-scale experimental set-up consisting of a gas mixing section and a quartz glass reactor in which the catalyst is investigated.

 

 

 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Apparent kinetics of the catalyzed water-gas shift reaction in synthetic wood gas

Plaza A, Fail S, Cortés JA, Föttinger K, Diaz N, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Apparent kinetics of the catalyzed water-gas shift reaction in synthetic wood gas. Chemical Engineering Journal. 1 October 2016;301: 222-228.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Annual efficiency of small scale biomass combustion systems

Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Schwarz M, Verma VK, Hebenstreit B, Carlon E, Golicza L, Hartmann H, Brandt J, Weissinger A, Berger H, Wörgetter M. Annual efficiency of small scale biomass combustion systems, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers

Haslinger W, Heckmann M, Schmidl C, Schwarz M. Annual efficiency determination of pellets boilers: Method, applications and new possibilities for the differentiation of the quality of pellets boilers, 10. Industrieforum Pellets, 7th-8th of September 2010, Stuttgart, Germany.

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Other Publications | 2012

Analytical approach for the determination of micro elements in anaerobic digestion systems by sequential extraction technique

Rachbauer, L. Analytical approach for the determination of micro elements in anaerobic digestion systems by sequential extraction technique, Master Thesis, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Der Einfluss von Nährstoffzusammensetzung und Additivzugabe beim anaeroben Abbau organischer Substanz stieß in den letzten Jahren vermehrt auf Interesse. Im Besonderen Spurenelemente haben erwiesenermaßen erheblichen Einfluss auf u.a. methanogene Archaeen und deren metabolische Aktivität. Massive Probleme der Prozessstabilität speziell bei Monovergärung unterschiedlichster Substrate können durch Co-Fermentation oder gezielte Zudosierung von Spurenelementmischungen überwunden werden. Ein profundes Verständnis der Wirkung dieser Elemente auf die verschiedenen mikrobiellen Spezies im Biogasreaktor als auch ihre Verfügbarkeit, ist die Voraussetzung für eine wirtschaftliche Gestaltung des anaeroben Fermentationsprozesses organischer Roh- als auch Reststoffe. Der heutige Stand-der-Technik zur Analyse von Biogasproben hat seinen Ursprung in der Wasser-, Abwasser- und Schlammanalytik und besteht aus einem einzelnen Filtrationsschritt vor Elementdetektion mittels ICP-OES bzw. ICP-MS. Diese Methodik erlaubt nur einen äußerst begrenzten Einblick in die Verteilung von essentiellen Spurenelementen in Anaerobreaktoren. Eine aussagekräftige Beurteilung der mikrobiellen Verfügbarkeit von beispielsweise Cobalt, Nickel oder Molybdän ist somit nur eingeschränkt möglich. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, eine bestehende Methode zur sequentiellen Extraktion aus dem Bereich der Boden- und Sedimentanalytik für die Anwendung auf Biogasproben zu adaptieren. Der daraus resultierende Einblick in die Verteilung von Spurenelementen in den einzelnen Fraktionen erlaubt eine genauere Bewertung der mikrobiellen Verfügbarkeit von Nährstoffen in Biogasreaktoren, verglichen mit bestehenden analytischen Untersuchungsmethoden. Anforderungen an das Verfahren wie die Reproduzierbarkeit der Daten, zeitsparende Analytik und wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit konnten erfüllt werden. Wiederfindungsraten zwischen 90 und 110 % wurden für die wichtigsten Spurenelemente erreicht. Durch die sequentielle Extraktion konnte gezeigt werden, dass essenzielle Mikro-Nährstoffe bis zu 98 % in einer unlöslichen Form vorliegen können. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit belegen die Anwendbarkeit der entwickelten Methodik zur Spurenelement-Extraktion in Anaerob-Systemen.


Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Analysis of woody biomass commodity price volatility in Austria

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Morawetz UB, Schmidt J, Schmid E. Analysis of woody biomass commodity price volatility in Austria. Biomass Bioenergy. 2014;65:112-124.

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Several energy and agricultural commodities have experienced higher price volatility in recent years. Management of price risks usually leads to additional costs that are often shared and transmitted along the supply chain to the final consumers. Only little information is currently available on how price volatility of woody biomass commodities has developed compared to energy and agricultural commodities in recent years. We compute the historic price volatility of woody biomass commodities using the standard deviation of log returns as well as univariate GARCH models. The results show that the price volatility of several woody biomass commodities has increased in recent years. However, the price volatility of woody biomass is still lower compared to the price volatility of agricultural commodities and fossil fuels. The analysis of factors and linkages provides insights of the current biomass market developments.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Analysis of optimization potential in commercial biomass gasification plants using process simulation

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Analysis of optimization potential in commercial biomass gasification plants using process simulation. Fuel Processing Technology. 01 December 2016;141: 138-147.

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Contributions at other events | 2014

Analysis of Environmental and Economic Aspects of International Pellet Supply Chains

Ehrig, R. Analysis of Environmental and Economic Aspects of International Pellet Supply Chains, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2014.

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Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the inuences on wood pellet supply chains considering dierent environmental policies, price risks and the eect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the rst investigation, the eciency of co-ring imported wood pellets in terms of CO2 savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-ring biomass is ecient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more eective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the inuence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can eect strong uctuations in the short term, which seriously aect the protability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply
chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research eorts and industrial demonstration are required to make torreed biomass a real alternative on the market.

 


Other Presentations | 2013

Analyse und Optimierung der Verfügbarkeit vom BHKW Güssing

Tripolt, M. Analyse und Optimierung der Verfügbarkeit vom BHKW Güssing, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Other Presentations | 2012

Analyse ausgewählter europäischer Biomassemärkte

Hollinger, K. Analyse ausgewählter europäischer Biomassemärkte, Diploma Thesis, FH-Burgenland, Pinkafeld, Austria, 2012.

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Contributions at other events | 2016

Analisi del ciclo di vita di caldaie a pellet di bassa potenza caratterizzate da alta efficienza e ridotte emissioni

Monteleone B, Chiesa M, Marzuoli R, Verma VK, Schwarz M, Carlon E, Schmidl C, Ballarin Denti A. Analisi del ciclo di vita di caldaie a pellet di bassa potenza caratterizzate da alta efficienza e ridotte emissioni. Agriforenergy. February 2016.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated brewers' spent grains

Bochmann G, Drosg B, Fuchs W. Anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated brewers' spent grains. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 2015;34(4):1092-6.

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Anaerobic digestion offers a good opportunity to degrade residues from breweries to biogas. To improve the anaerobic degradation process thermal pretreatment of brewers' spent grains (BSG) offers the opportunity to increase degradation rate and biogas yield. Aim of the work is to show the influence of the thermal pretreatment of BSG to anaerobic digestion. BSG were pretreated at different temperature levels from 100 to 200°C. The biogas production of thermally pretreated BSG lies between 30 and 40% higher than for untreated reference. The temperature of the pretreatment process has a significant influence on the degradation rate or gas yield, respectively. Up to a temperature of 160°C, the biogas yield rises. Temperatures over 160°C result in a slower degradation and decreasing biogas yield. Substrate with and without pretreatment gave a daily biogas yield of 430 and 389 Nm3 × kg-1 VS, respectively. Batch analysis of the biochemical methane potential gives a total methane yield of 409.8 Nm3 CH4 × kg-1 VS of untreated brewers' spent grains and 467.6 Nm3 CH4 × kg-1 VS of the pretreated samples. For pretreatment energy balance estimation has been carried out. Without any heat recovery demand is higher than the energy surplus resulting from pretreatment of BSG. With energy recovery by heat exchanger the net energy yield could be increased to 38.87 kWh × kg-1 FM or 8.81%. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.


Conference Papers | 2017

An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber

Loipersböck J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2016

An investigation on the behavior of impurities over a water gas shift stage using biomass derived syngas for hydrogen production

Loipersböck J, Lenzi M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. An investigation on the behavior of impurities over a water gas shift stage using biomass derived syngas for hydrogen production. iSGA 2016 - 5th International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (invited lecture). November/December 2016, Busan, Korea.

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Conference contributions | 2013

An Experimental Approach for the Production of Pure Hydrogen Based on Wood Gasification

Fail S, Diaz N, Konlechner D, Hackel M, Sanders E, Rauch R, Harasek M, Bosch K, Schwenninger F, Zapletal P, Schee Z, Hofbauer H. An Experimental Approach for the Production of Pure Hydrogen Based on Wood Gasification, International Conference on Polygeneration Strategies (ICPS13) 2013, 3th-5th of September 2013, Vienna, Austria. p 109-117. (peer reviewed)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Bioresource Technology. August 2017;237: 39-46.

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Conference contributions | 2013

An environmental impact assessment of Romanian wood pellets delivered to Austrian households and converted into heat

Maderthaner E, Ehrig R. An environmental impact assessment of Romanian wood pellets delivered to Austrian households and converted into heat, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Scientific Journals | 2019

Ammonia as Promising Fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental Analysis and Performance Evaluation

Stöckl B, Preininger M, Subotic V, Schröttner H, Sommersacher P, Seidl M, Megel S, Hochenauer C. Ammonia as Promising Fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental Analysis and Performance Evaluation. ECS Transactions; The Electrochemical Society 2019.91:1601-1610

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n the course of this study the direct utilization of ammonia in different types of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), such as anode- and electrolyte-supported SOFC, is investigated. Experiments in low fuel utilization, exhibited excellent performance of ammonia in SOFCs, although the power outputs of equivalent hydrogen/nitrogen fuels were not attained due to the incomplete endothermic ammonia decomposition. Next, the single cells were operated under high fuel utilization conditions and methane was added to the humidified ammonia stream, where they showed excellent ammonia- and methane conversions. The stability of the cells used was proven over a period of at least 48 hours with a variety of fuel mixtures. Post mortem scanning electron microscopy analysis of the anode micro-structures indicated nitriding effects of nickel, as microscopic pores and enlargements of the metallic parts occurred. Finally, a long-term test over 1,000 hours was carried out using a ten-layer stack consisting of electrolyte-supported cells.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Air staging to reduce emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications

Carroll JP, Finnan JM, Biedermann F, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Air staging to reduce emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications. Fuel. 2015;155:37-43.

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The results of experimental work to investigate the effects of air staging on emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications are presented. Five different biomass fuels (wood, willow, miscanthus, tall fescue and cocksfoot) were combusted in a small scale (35 kW) biomass boiler and three different tests looking at the effects of (1) air ratio in the primary combustion chamber (primary air ratio), (2) temperature in the primary combustion chamber, and (3) overall excess air ratio, on NOx and particulate emissions were conducted. It was shown that by varying the primary air ratio, NOx emission reductions of between 15% (wood) and 30% (Miscanthus) and PM1 reductions of between 16% (cocksfoot) and 26% (wood) were possible. For all fuels, both NOx and particulate emissions were minimised at a primary air ratio of 0.8. Particulate emissions from miscanthus increased with increasing temperature in the primary combustion chamber, NOx emissions from Miscanthus and from willow also increased with temperature. Overall excess air ratio has no effect on emissions as no significant differences were found for any of the fuels. Emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen from a wide range of biomass feedstocks can be minimised by optimising the primary air ratio and by maintaining a temperature in the primary combustion chamber of approximately 900 °C.


Conference contributions | 2014

Air quality management and biomass burning at domestic level

Aigenbauer S, Bachmaier H, Figl F, Hartmann H, Haslinger W et al. Air quality management and biomass burning at domestic level, Progetto Fuoco 2014, 19th-23rd of February 2014, Verona, Italy.

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Other Presentations | 2016

Air pollution reduction due to the adoption of high efficiency small scale pellet boilers characterized by low emissions

Chiesa M, Monteleone B, Venuta ML, Maffeis G, Greco S, Cherubini A, Schmidl C, Finco A, Gerosa G, Ballarin Denti A. Air pollution reduction due to the adoption of high efficiency small scale pellet boilers characterized by low emissions. Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 July 2016;90: 262-272.

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Conference contributions | 2011

Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units

Wopienka E. Agricultural Biomass for Small-scale Combustion Units, Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2010

Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa

Pieber S, Ragossnig A, Brooks L, Meirhofer M, Pomberger R, Curtis A. Advanced waste-splitting by sensor based sorting on the example of the MT-plant Oberlaa, DepoTech 2010, 3rd-5th of November 2010, Leoben, Austria. p 695-698.

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Heterogeneous wastes, which cannot be material-recycled easily are used for energetic utilization. Certain quality criteria need to be met in this context, addressing especially the chlorine content due to the product quality as well as to environmental and safety issues. In regard of current issues in climate policy concerning emission trading, also an increased biogenic content in these waste fractions is desirable. Therefore, experiments with a sensor-based sorting technology at pilot scale as well as large scale have been conducted to analyse the technical feasibility of this technology for its application on heterogeneous wastes to gain products with desired material and quality criteria. The results of pilot scale experiments show that the sensor-based sorting technology is generally technically feasible to gain waste fractions with the required characteristics, if the technology was adjusted to the specific waste stream. Due to restrictions during the large scale experiment a number of further issues need to be addressed in
further experiments to allow for a concluding evaluation of that treatment concept.


Conference contributions | 2012

Advanced Motor Fuels

Bacovsky D. Advanced Motor Fuels, Eco-Mobility Conference 2012, 11th-12th of December 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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