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Scientific Journals | 2018

Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

Kraussler M, Binder M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy. April 2018, 111: 320-329.

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Dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification generates a high calorific, practically nitrogen-free product gas with a volumetric H2 content of about 40%. Therefore, this could be a promising route for a polygeneration concept aiming at the production of valuable gases (for example H2), electricity, and heat. In this paper, a lab-scale process chain, based on state of the art unit operations, which processed a tar-rich product gas from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant, is investigated regarding H2 production within a polygeneration concept. The lab-scale process chain employed a water gas shift step, two gas scrubbing steps, and a pressure swing adsorption step. During the investigations, a volumetric H2 concentration of 99.9% with a specific H2 production of 30 g kg−1 biomass was reached. In addition, a valuable off-gas stream with a lower heating value of 7.9 MJ m−3 was produced. Moreover, a techno-economic assessment shows the economic feasibility of such a polygeneration concept, if certain feed in tariffs for renewable electricity and H2 exist. Consequently, these results show, that the dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification technology is a promising route for a polygeneration concept, which aims at the production of H2, electricity, and district heat.


Scientific Journals | 2018

Impact of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves on Emissions under Real-Life Operating Conditions

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Impact of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves on Emissions under Real-Life Operating Conditions. Fuel Processing Technology. 2018; 117: 300-313.

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Catalytic systems integrated in firewood stoves represent a secondary measure for emission reduction. This study evaluates the impact on emissions of two types of honeycomb catalysts integrated in different firewood stoves. The tests were conducted under real-life related testing conditions. The pressure drop induced by the catalyst's carrier geometry affects primary combustion conditions which can influence the emissions. A negative primary effect reduces the catalytic efficiency and has to be considered for developing catalyst integrated solutions. However, a significant net emission reduction was observed. The ceramic catalyst reduced CO emissions by 83%. The metallic catalyst reduced CO emissions by 93% which was significantly better compared to the ceramic catalyst. The net emission reduction of OGC (~30%) and PM (~20%) was similar for both types of catalysts. In most cases, the “Ecodesign” emission limit values, which will enter into force in 2022 for new stoves, were met although the ignition and preheating batches were respected. PM emission composition showed a lower share of elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with integrated catalyst. However, no selectivity towards more reduction of EC or OC was observed. Further investigations should evaluate the long term stability under real-life operation in the field and the effect of the catalyst on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions.


Scientific Journals | 2018

Improving exploitation of chicken manure via two-stage anaerobic digestion with an intermediate membrane contactor to extract ammonia

Wang X, Gabauer W, Li Z, Ortner M, Fuchs W. Improving exploitation of chicken manure via two-stage anaerobic digestion with an intermediate membrane contactor to extract ammonia. Bioresource Technology 2018;368:811-814.

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This study describes a modified process of ammonia release through pre-hydrolysis – ammonia removal via membrane contactor – methanization for counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of chicken manure. In the pre-hydrolysis step, ammonia was rapidly released within the first 3–5 days. 78%-83% of the total nitrogen was finally converted into total ammonia/ammonium (TAN) with volatile fatty acids concentration of approximately 300 g/kg·VS. In the ammonia removal process, diluting the hydrolyzed chicken manure to 1:2, the TAN could be reduced to 2 g/kg in 21 h when pH was increased to 9. The final BMP test of chicken manure verified that lower TAN concentration (decreased to 2 g/kg) significantly reduced inhibitory effects, obtaining a high methane yield of 437.0 mL/g·VS. The investigations underlined several advantages of this modified process.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Influence of drag laws on pressure and bed material recirculation rate in a cold flow model of an 8 MW dual fluidized bed system by means of CPFD

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Influence of drag laws on pressure and bed material recirculation rate in a cold flow model of an 8 MW dual fluidized bed system by means of CPFD. Particuology, February 2018;36:70-81.

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A cold flow model of an 8 MW dual fluidized bed (DFB) system is simulated using the commercial computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) software package Barracuda. The DFB system comprises a bubbling bed connected to a fast fluidized bed with the bed material circulating between them. As the hydrodynamics in hot DFB plants are complex because of high temperatures and many chemical reaction processes, cold flow models are used. Performing numerical simulations of cold flows enables a focus on the hydrodynamics as the chemistry and heat and mass transfer processes can be put aside. The drag law has a major influence on the hydrodynamics, and therefore its influence on pressure, particle distribution, and bed material recirculation rate is calculated using Barracuda and its results are compared with experimental results. The drag laws used were energy-minimization multiscale (EMMS), Ganser, Turton–Levenspiel, and a combination of Wen–Yu/Ergun. Eleven operating points were chosen for that study and each was calculated with the aforementioned drag laws. The EMMS drag law best predicted the pressure and distribution of the bed material in the different parts of the DFB system. For predicting the bed material recirculation rate, the Ganser drag law showed the best results. However, the drag laws often were not able to predict the experimentally found trends of the bed material recirculation rate. Indeed, the drag law significantly influences the hydrodynamic outcomes in a DFB system and must be chosen carefully to obtain meaningful simulation results. More research may enable recommendations as to which drag law is useful in simulations of a DFB system with CPFD.


Technical Reports | 2018

Modellbasierte Regelung und Elektrofilterintegration zur schadstoffarmen Verbrennung alternativer Biomassebrennstoffe

Muschick D, Zemann C, Kelz J, Hofmeister G, Gölles M. Modellbasierte Regelung und Elektrofilterintegration zur schadstoffarmen Verbrennung alternativer Biomassebrennstoffe. FFG, Energieforschungsprogramm 1. Ausschreibung. 2018.

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Technical Reports | 2018

Modellbasierte Regelung von Scheitholzkesseln mit Pufferspeicher - Smart logwood boiler

Endbericht (Entwurf)

Deutsch M, Gölles M, Zemann C, Zlabinger S. Modellbasierte Regelung von Scheitholzkesseln mit Pufferspeicher - Smart logwood boiler. FFG, Energieforschungsprogramm 1. Ausschreibung. 2018.

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Scheitholzkessel sind die in Europa immer noch am stärksten verbreitete Form von Holz-basierten Zentralheizungssystemen. Der Bestand ist überaltert und weist die größten Anteile an den verursachten Schadstoffemissionen aus Festbrennstoffzentralheizungssystemen auf. Das Ziel des Projektes, die komplette Neuentwicklung einer modellbasierten Regelung für Scheitholzkessel mit Pufferspeichern und einer Solaranlage, stellte einen Technologie-sprung in Richtung einer drastischen Reduktion der Schadstoffemissionen (CO, org. C, Fein-staub) bei gleichzeitiger Erhöhung des Nutzungsgrades und Benutzerkomforts dar. Dabei erfolgte sowohl die übergeordnete Regelung des Zusammenspiels der Komponenten (Systemregelung) als auch die Regelung der einzelnen Komponenten (Feuerungsregelung, Hydraulikregelung) modellbasiert. Die neue Regelung basiert auf einer gezielten Interaktion mit dem Benutzer, in welcher der Benutzer zielgerichtet zum Nachlegen einer bestimmten Brennstoffmenge in einem bestimmten Zeitraum aufgefordert wird. Zusätzlich dazu werden alle Teilprozesse (Verbrennung des Scheitholzes, Übertragung der Wärme in den Pufferspeicher, usw.) modellbasiert und damit deutlich effizienter und genauer geregelt. Im Fall der Feuerungsregelung wurde zusätzlich zur modellbasierten Regelung von Vorlauf-temperatur und Sauerstoffgehalt auch eine innovative CO-l-Regelung eingesetzt, die basierend auf einer kontinuierlichen Schätzung der CO- l-Charakteristik unter Verwendung eines kombinierten Sensors zur Sauerstoffmessung und Detektion unverbrannter Kompo-nenten stets einen für den aktuellen Betriebszustand optimalen Sollwert für den Sauer-stoffgehalt vorgibt. Die laufende Anpassung des Sauerstoffgehaltes führt zu einer deutlichen Reduktion der Schadstoffemissionen (CO, org. C, Feinstaub). Zum Erreichen dieser Ziele wurden im Wesentlichen folgende Schritte durchgeführt:

  • Experimentelle Untersuchung und Modellierung des Abbrandverhaltens von Scheitholz (inklusive der CO-l-Charakteristik)
  • Entwicklung einer übergeordneten modellbasierten Systemregelung
  • Entwicklung einer modellbasierten Feuerungsregelung (inkl. CO-l-Regelung) für einen effizienten und schadstoffarmen Betrieb des Scheitholkessels
  • Experimentelle Bewertung des Potentials der modellbasierten Regelung
  • Analyse der Anforderungen zur Anpassung der Regelung an andere Konfigurationen

 

Das beantragte Projekt leistete somit einen entscheidenden Beitrag zum Ausschreibungs-schwerpunkt „Effiziente und emissionsarme Klein- und Kleinstfeuerungen durch Integration einer intelligenten Verbrennungs- und Leistungsregelung“ und ging zusätzlich explizit auf die im Ausschreibungsleitfaden adressierte Verwendung von kombinierten Sensorsystemen wie CO- l-Sensorsysteme zur Verbrennungsregelung ein. Dabei ist insbesondere hervorzuheben, dass der durchdachte Ansatz das Sensorsignal zu Schätzung der CO- l-Charakteristik zu verwenden den wesentlichen Vorteil mit sich bringt, dass die exakte Messung der CO-Emissionen durch den Sensor nicht erforderlich ist, sondern es ausreicht, wenn dieser die Tendenzen richtig wiedergibt.


Other Presentations | 2018

Modular Energy Management Systems for future cross-sectoral energy systems

Muschick D, Moser A, Stadler M, Gölles M. Modular Energy Management Systems for future cross-sectoral energy systems. World Sustainable Energy Days 2018.

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Conference contributions | 2018

Modular optimization-based energy management framework for cross-sectoral energy networks

Muschick D, Gölles M, Moser A. Modular optimization-based energy management framework for cross-sectoral energy networks. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018. (Poster)

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Other Presentations | 2018

Modulares Energiemanagementsystem für sektorübergreifende Energiesysteme

Muschick D, Moser A, Stadler M, Gölles M. Modulares Energiemanagementsystem für sektorübergreifende Energiesysteme. 15. Symposiums Energieinnovation; Februar 2018.

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Conference contributions | 2018

Performance improvement of model-based control strategies in large-scale solar plants and its implementation details

Innerhofer P, Unterberger V, Luidolt P, Lichtenegger K, Gölles M. Performance improvement of model-based control strategies in large-scale solar plants and its implementation details. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018.

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Power to fuels: Dynamic modeling of a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor in lab-scale for Fischer Tropsch synthesis under variable load of synthesis gas

Seyednejadian S, Rauch R, Bensaid S, Hofbauer H, Weber G, Saracco G. Power to fuels: Dynamic modeling of a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor in lab-scale for Fischer Tropsch synthesis under variable load of synthesis gas. Apllied Sciences. 2018, 8(4): 514.

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This research developed a comprehensive computer model for a lab-scale Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) (0.1 m Dt and 2.5 m height) for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis under flexible operation of synthesis gas load flow rates. The variable loads of synthesis gas are set at 3.5, 5, 7.5 m3/h based on laboratory adjustments at three different operating temperatures (483, 493 and 503 K). A set of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in the form of mass transfer and chemical reaction are successfully coupled to predict the behavior of all the FT components in two phases (gas and liquid) over the reactor bed. In the gas phase, a single-bubble-class-diameter (SBCD) is adopted and the reduction of superficial gas velocity through the reactor length is incorporated into the model by the overall mass balance. Anderson Schulz Flory distribution is employed for reaction kinetics. The modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data. The results of dynamic modeling show that the steady state condition is attained within 10 min from start-up. Furthermore, they show that step-wise syngas flow rate does not have a detrimental influence on FT product selectivity and the dynamic modeling of the slurry reactor responds quite well to the load change conditions.


Scientific Journals | 2018

Tackling ammonia inhibition for efficient biogas production from chicken manure: Status and technical trends in Europe and China

Fuchs W, Wang X, Gabauer W, Ortner M, Li Z. Tackling ammonia inhibition for efficient biogas production from chicken manure: Status and technical trends in Europe and China (Review). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018;97:186-199.

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The increased global consumption of chicken products has resulted in the generation of huge amounts of manure. Numerous studies emphasized the large potential of this waste as an untapped source of renewable energy through anaerobic digestion (AD). However, intrinsic difficulties, in particular the high N content, induce instable process conditions, including the accumulation of intermediates, and foaming, which reduces methane yields. Such issues limit the widespread application of this energy-rich substrate for biogas production. The process inhibition by ammonia is usually prevented by reducing the concentration of chicken manure through dilution or by operating the plant considerably below its theoretical reactor capacity. However, this process compromises process efficiency, thereby increasing capital investments and operational costs. Another option to achieve optimal process performance is co-digestion with less N-rich materials. However, co-digestion also has its limitations due to the frequent unavailability of sufficient amounts of C-rich substrates. A series of promising technical solutions have been developed to overcome the aforementioned bottlenecks. Examples include stripping or membrane extraction as means to reduce ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Several full-scale plants employing ammonia removal techniques have been installed recently. Latest research also investigated the use of additives, such as zeolites and trace elements, as well as bioaugmentation, to mitigate ammonia inhibition. The current study reviews the state of technology as well as recent achievements and perspectives. It provides an overview of the different approaches to remove ammonia from AD-process and presents practical examples from China and Europe.


Technical Reports | 2018

The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Riepl R, Schipfer F, Zellinger M. The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. BMVIT, Schriftenreihe 25/2018.

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Conference contributions | 2018

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae. presentation at the WSED, Wels, Austria, 01. March 2018.

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The present study examines the possible use of urban and rural traffic areas for producing biomass. Many of those areas (for example, parking lots at cinemas and shopping centers) are only intensively used during certain times. Most of the time those areas remain empty.
At the same time a major problem for large-scale implementation of renewable energy is the massive land use resulting from limited energy density of solar radiation and, in case of biomass production, low efficiency for utilization of solar radiation by plants. Additionally, renewable energies are often criticized for the fact that they require areas, which could also be used for food and feed production.
Therefore, it is an attractive idea to use some of the traffic areas that are lost for the ecosystem anyway for biomass production. This approach is novel that no data have been available yet. The aim of this work was therefore to develop technical solutions, to quantify the technical potential for this type of biomass production and, subsequently, for energy supply, based on data on the area utilization, climatic data and known properties of microalgae.
The work deals with the question of the technical potential for this approach in Austria. This question is
answered by a survey of the area data in Austria, the elaboration of technical systems for a possible implementation, as well as by calculating the biomass potential, based on simulation results. The data have been collected, analyzed and evaluated in a comprehensive literature search. The potential analysis provides an overview of the distribution of traffic areas in Austria and the resulting biomass potential. Thus, a list of possible areas including biomass and energy quantities is available.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Online experiments and modelling with a detailed reaction scheme of single particle biomass pyrolysis.

Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Scharler R. Online experiments and modelling with a detailed reaction scheme of single particle biomass pyrolysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. Available online 17 July 2017

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Detailed reaction schemes and experimental data for the online release of pyrolysis volatiles are required to gain a more fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis, which would in turn allow the process to be controlled in a more precise way and the development of more targeted applications. A detailed online characterisation of pyrolysis products has been conducted in single particle experiments with spruce pellets at different temperatures, obtaining a good closure of the elemental mass balances. The yields and online release of CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, other light hydrocarbons and total organic condensable species, as well as char yield and composition, can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy with the application of a single particle model, coupled with a detailed pyrolysis scheme, and a simple one-step scheme for tar cracking. In order to achieve it, improvements have been conducted in the pyrolysis scheme, mainly concerning the release of light hydrocarbons and char yield and composition. Deviations are still present in the different groups in which organic condensable species can be classified.


Technical Reports | 2017

2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers

Warner E, Bacovsky D, Schwab A. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydocarbon Biofuels Producers. February 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

A hybrid of winddiesel technology with biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

Nikparsa P, Rauch R, Mirzaei AA. A hybrid of winddiesel technology with biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Monatshefte für Chemie. 10 July 2017;1-10.

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The syngas mixture produced from biomass (bio-syngas) is characterized by a H2/CO molar ratio of 1.5 in this work, which is different from that of traditional syngas ratio of 2. Therefore a hybrid of winddiesel technology with bio-syngas conversion by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (WD-FT) on a cobalt based catalyst was investigated, for the first time, using a slurry reactor. The result from feeding this technology is compared with the direct converting biomass derived synthetic gas to fuels via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (BS-FT). Experiments were performed at different syngas composition (variation of H2/CO ratio), keeping the other parameters (temperature 230 °C; gas flow 5 Nm³/h, pressure 20 bar) constant. Comparison of the WD-FT with the BS-FT synthesis results displayed mass fraction of light hydrocarbons and higher catalytic stability and activity after 500 h. The olefin structures for the different product distributions, obtained from different reactions, are determined by ¹H NMR spectroscopy. Negligible amounts of iso-α-olefins were detected in the product of the WD-FT reaction. In the case of the alpha value, a slight change was observed between 0.93 and 0.92 for the BS-FT and WD-FT reaction.
 


Conference Papers | 2017

A novel approach for the implementation of TORrefaction in Residential and COMmunal heating Boilers (TORRECOMB)

Kourkoumpa DS, Kienzl N, Isemin R, Strasser C, Nikolopoulus N, Margaritis N, Panagiotis G. A novel approach for the implementation of TORrefaction in Residential and COMmunal heating Boilers (TORRECOMB). 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2017

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTX/PAH) as Soot Precursors from Biomass Pyrolysis Products

Mehrabian R, Shiehnejadhesar A, Bahramian H, Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTX/PAH) as Soot Precursors from Biomass Pyrolysis Products. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). May 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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In this work a novel reaction mechanism for gas phase reactions has been developed to predict the formation of aromatic compounds from the pyrolysis products of woody biomass particles. The aromatic compounds are important for being main soot precursors as well as their toxic properties. The developed gas phase mechanism is validated with experimental data from literature as well as experimental data performed with a single particle reactor for three different pyrolysis temperatures, namely 550, 800 and 1000°C. A good agreement is achieved between model results and experimental data for the total yield of each main family of aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. phenolics, BTXs and PAHs.


Conference contributions | 2017

Abschätzung der Ertragssteigerung durch moderne Regelungsstrategien

Innerhofer P, Unterberger V, Gerardts B, Lichtenegger K, Gölles M. Abschätzung der Ertragssteigerung durch moderne Regelungsstrategien. 27. Symposium Thermische Solarenergie OTTI. Bad Staffelstein, Deutschland: 2017.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Acid base interaction and its influence on the adsorption kinetics and selectivity order of aromatic sulfur heterocycles adsorbing on Ag-Al2O3

Neubauer R, Husmann M, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Leitner E, Hochenauer C. Acid base interaction and its influence on the adsorption kinetics and selectivity order of aromatic sulfur heterocycles adsorbing on Ag-Al2O3. Chemical Engineering Journal. 1 February 2017;309: 840-849.

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Adsorptive desulfurization is a promising technology to provide sulfur free fuels for fuel cell based power units. In this work the adsorption kinetics of three different aromatic sulfur heterocycles was studied for Ag-Al2O3. The influence of individual as well as competitive adsorption on the selectivity order was investigated by equilibrium and breakthrough experiments. In these experiments a jet-A1 fuel enriched with benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was used. The adsorption of aromatic sulfur heterocycles on Ag-Al2O3 proceeds via three different adsorption mechanisms. Within these mechanisms the π-interaction (π-Ag) and the direct sulfur-silver interaction (S-Ag) are significantly stronger in comparison to the acid base interaction (S-H). The results showed that the π-Ag and S-Ag interactions are the major adsorption mechanisms in the first stage, where film-diffusion limits the adsorption rate. In the second stage, the S-H interaction plays only an important role for BT, where intraparticle diffusion is the rate controlling step. The overall selectivity order was found to be BT > DBT > 4,6-DMDBT in the case of competitive adsorption for both equilibrium and breakthrough performance. The S-H contribution was related to incorporation of silver into blank γ-alumina, which significantly increased the overall acidity of the adsorbent.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Bioresource Technology. August 2017;237: 39-46.

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Conference Papers | 2017

An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber

Loipersböck J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. An investigation on the behaviour of nitrogen based impurities over a water gas shift stage and a biodiesel scrubber. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Scientific Journals | 2017

Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst.

Krycaa J, Priščák J, Łojewskac J, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Apparent kinetics of the water-gas-shift reaction in biomass gasification using ash-layered olivine as catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2018, 346: 113-119.

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Substitution of fossil fuels for production of electricity, heat, fuels for transportation and chemicals can be realized using biomass steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB).

Interaction between biomass ash and bed material in a fluidized bed leads to transformation of the bed particle due to enrichment of components from the biomass ash resulting in the development of ash layers on the bed particle surface. These ash-rich particle layers enhance the catalytic activity of the bed material regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the reduction of tars.

The water-gas-shift reaction at conditions typical for dual fluidized bed biomass gasification at a temperature of 870 °C was investigated. Diffusion and heat transfer limitations were minimized using a lab-scale experimental set-up consisting of a gas mixing section and a quartz glass reactor in which the catalyst is investigated.

 

 

 


Conference Papers | 2017

Ash and bed material research in dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in lab- and industrial-scale

Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Ash and bed material research in dual fluidized bed gasification of biomass in lab- and industrial-scale. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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