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Other publication | 2016

beReal - Comparative assessment of EN standard test methods and new real-life test methods for biomass room heating appliances

Schmidl C, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W. beReal - Comparative assessment of EN standard test methods and new real-life test methods for biomass room heating appliances. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Other publication | 2016

beReal - Development of a New Test Method for Firewood Roomheaters Reflecting Real Life Operation

Reichert G, Hartmann H, Haslinger W, Oehler H, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Woehler M. beReal - Development of a New Test Method for Firewood Roomheaters Reflecting Real Life Operation. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Other Presentations | 2016

Bidirektionale Einbindung dezentraler Einspeiser in Wärmenetze: hydraulische, wärmetechnische und regelungstechnische Aspekte

LichteneggerK, Muschick D, Gölles M, Höftberger E, Leitner A, Wöss D, Reiterer D. Bidirektionale Einbindung dezentraler Einspeiser in Wärmenetze: hydraulische, wärmetechnische und regelungstechnische Aspekte. Vortrag auf der Fachtagung Wärmenetze der Zukunft (2016 in Salzburg).

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Technical Reports | 2016

Biofuels in transport

Bacovsky D. Biofuels in transport. WPC Guide to Biofuels. September 2016.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor

Rachbauer L, Voitl G, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Biological biogas upgrading capacity of a hydrogenotrophic community in a trickle-bed reactor. Applied Energy. 15 October 2016;180: 483-490.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2016

Biomass-Based Heating and Hot Water Supply Systems for Prefabricated, High Energy Performance Houses: a Comparison of System Configurations and Control Strategies

Carlon E, Schwarz M, Prada A, Verma V, Baratieri M, Gasparella A, Schmidl C. Biomass-Based Heating and Hot Water Supply Systems for Prefabricated, High Energy Performance Houses: a Comparison of System Configurations and Control Strategies. 12th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2016 (full paper review and oral presentation). 22 May 2016, Aalborg, Denmark.

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Nowadays prefabricated houses are becoming increasingly popular, thanks to their low cost and high energy performance. Heating systems installed in these houses should be carefully designed and controlled, to ensure sufficient thermal comfort while maintaining low fuel consumptions. This study presents the simulation of different system configurations and control strategies for a pre-fabricated house, located in Lower Austria. The house is heated by a 6 kW pellet boiler directly connected to a floor heating system, in a configuration without buffer storage tank. Using the TRNSYS simulation suite, a coupled simulation of the house and its heating and hot water supply system was set up, calibrated and validated with reference to monitoring data. As monitoring data evidenced that the control strategy of the heating system is not ideal to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature during the whole day, two improved strategies were simulated over the heating season and evaluated in terms of thermal comfort, pellet consumption and boiler’s efficiency. Moreover, to better understand the influence of the system configuration, simulations have been repeated considering another heat distribution system (radiators instead of floor heating). Results show that the radiators’ network, if adequately controlled, reduces by 85% the total discomfort time. In addition, the pellet boiler mainly operates in load modulation regime, leading to lower pellet supply rates and therefore to lower pellet consumptions (18% less than floor heating). However, the lower operational loads and frequent ignitions result in a slightly lower efficiency of the pellet boiler (4% less than the configuration with floor heating.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Characterization of biochars produced from pyrolysis of pelletized agricultural residues

Colantoni A, Evic N, Lord R, Retschitzegger S, Proto A, Gallucci F, Monarca D. Characterization of biochars produced from pyrolysis of pelletized agricultural residues. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 1 October 2016;64: 187-194.

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Biochars produced from pelletized grape vine (GV) and sunflower husk (SFH) agricultural residues were studied by pyrolysis in a batch reactor at 400 and 500 °C. Chemical and physical evolution of the biomass under pyrolysis conditions was determined and the products were characterized, including the main gaseous organic components. Results showed a decrease in solid biochar yield with increasing temperature. Biochar is defined as a “porous carbonaceous solid” produced by thermochemical conversion of organic materials in an oxygen depleted atmosphere, which has physiochemical properties suitable for the safe and long-term storage of carbon in the environment and, potentially, soil improvement. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge and acceptability of alternative use of the biochar gained from agro-forestry biomass residuals, such as grape vine and sunflower husks, by means of modern chemical and physical characterization tools.


Conference Papers | 2016

Cold flow modelling of char concentration in the recirculated bed material stream of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification system

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Cold flow modelling of char concentration in the recirculated bed material stream of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification system. Fluidization XV. 22-27 May 2016, Quebec, Canada.

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The dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification technology of biomass was developed at Vienna University of Technology and is well-established for transforming biomass into a product gas which can be used for further applications. The DFB steam gasification reactor consists of a gasification chamber (bubbling bed, fluidized with steam) and a combustion chamber (turbulent bed, fluidized with air). Biomass is fed into the gasification chamber and gets in contact with the bed material, typically Olivine, at about 840°C. The released volatiles leave the gasification reactor as product gas. A part of the solid residue, called char, flows with the bed material via a chute to the combustion chamber where it is burnt with air. The bed material is heated up, separated from the flue gas stream in a cyclone and flows back to the gasification reactor via a loop seal where it provides the heat for devolatilization and drying of the biomass. The movement of the char is crucial since a sufficient amount has to flow to the combustion chamber and burn to provide enough energy for bed material heat-up. Up to now little is known about the char concentration in the bed material recirculation stream (or short recirculation stream) and its influencing variables. Therefore, a cold flow model, operated with ambient air, was constructed to study the influence of various parameters on the char concentration in the recirculation stream. Bronze is used as bed material since is matches closest to the scaling criteria. The char is also scaled; polyethylene is used as model char.

The cold flow model, see Figure 1 for the flowsheet, consists of a “gasification chamber” which corresponds to the gasification chamber in the hot plant and is as well operated as a bubbling bed. Via a chute the recirculation stream moves to a rotary valve which enables to set a fixed recirculation rate and make it independent from the following pneumatic conveying. Then, gas and solids are separated in a cyclone and the recirculation stream finally flows back to the gasification chamber. After the loop seal samples are taken for investigation of the model char concentration in the recirculation stream. In the present study the influence of fluidization rate in the gasification chamber, bed material recirculation rate and model char mass in the system on the char concentration in the recirculation stream are investigated. It was found that the model char particles show a flotsam behavior. Higher fluidization rates increase the model char concentration in the recirculation stream because of better mixing, whereas the bed material recirculation rate has only little influence. Doubling and tripling the overall char mass in the system did not lead to a doubling or tripling model char concentration in the recirculation stream. The present observations are helping to better understand the ongoing phenomena inside of the dual fluidized bed gasification reactor and provide knowledge to further optimize it.


Conference contributions | 2016

Detailed Reaction Schemes and Product Characterization Applied to Pyrolysis of a Single Spruce Particle

Andrés Anca-Couce, Peter Sommersacher, Robert Scharler, Christoph Hochenauer. Detailed Reaction Schemes and Product Characterization Applied to Pyrolysis of a Single Spruce Particle. 24rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation).

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Dominating high temperature corrosion mechanism in low alloy steels in wood chips fired boilers

Gruber T, Retschitzegger S, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Dominating high temperature corrosion mechanism in low alloy steels in wood chips fired boilers. Energy and Fuels. 17 March 2016;30(3): 2385-2394.

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Ash related problems such as slagging, fouling, and high temperature corrosion in biomass fired boilers are still insufficiently explored due to the complexity of the underlying processes. High temperature corrosion of low alloy steels like 13CrMo4-5 has already been investigated in plants firing chemically untreated wood chips. In this earlier work it has been suggested that the oxidation of the steel is the dominating mechanism in the material temperature range between 450 and 550 °C. Unfortunately the exponential dependence of the material degradation on the flue gas temperature also found within this work cannot be explained with the proposed corrosion mechanism. To determine the dominating corrosion mechanism, additionally test runs have been carried out in a specially designed drop tube reactor. To investigate the time-dependent corrosion behavior of 13CrMo4-5, a newly developed mass loss probe was applied under several constant parameter setups. In addition to these measurements, the time-dependent oxidation of 13CrMo4-5 under air was investigated in a muffle furnace. To gain relevant information regarding the corrosion mechanism prevailing, the deposits as well as the corrosion products have been examined subsequently to the test runs by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. With the experimental data gained it could be shown that the dominating corrosion mechanism strongly depends on the conditions prevailing (e.g., steel temperature, flue gas temperature, and velocity) and can either be the oxidation of the steel by gaseous O2 and H2O or a combination of oxidation and active Cl-induced oxidation.


Other publication | 2016

Emission Reduction of Firewood Roomheaters by Optimization of Operating Conditions and Catalyst Integration

Reichert G, Stressler H, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Sturmlechner R, Haslinger W. Emission Reduction of Firewood Roomheaters by Optimization of Operating Conditions and Catalyst Integration. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Conference Papers | 2016

Energetische Verwertung einer Feinfraktion aus der MBA durch pyrolytische Behandlung

Meirhofer M, Wartha C, Strasser C. Energetische Verwertung einer Feinfraktion aus der MBA durch pyrolytische Behandlung. Recy & DepoTech 2016 (poster). November 2016, Leoben, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Enhanced Separation of the Organic Fraction from Paper Mill Effluent for Energy Recovery

Stoyanova E, Bochmann G, Couperus A, Fuchs W. Enhanced Separation of the Organic Fraction from Paper Mill Effluent for Energy Recovery. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 1 October 2016;7(5): 1031-1039.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Experimental investigations of hydrogen production from CO catalytic conversion of tar rich syngas by biomass gasification

Chianese S, Fail S, Binder M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Molino A, Blasi A, Musmarra D. Experimental investigations of hydrogen production from CO catalytic conversion of tar rich syngas by biomass gasification. Catalysis Today. 15 November 2016;277: 181-192.

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In this paper, the activity of a cobalt/molybdenum (Co/Mo) commercial catalyst for the Water Gas Shift Reaction for hydrogen production was investigated in a three fixed-bed reactor pilot plant using a tar-rich synthesis gas from a full-scale biomass gasification plant as feed-stream. A parametric variation study was carried out to assess CO conversion (XCO) and selectivity for the water gas shift reaction as a function of the operating temperature (T) in the range 300–450 °C. The effects of four dry gas hourly space velocities (GHSV), Case A-Case D, two steam to dry synthesis gas ratios (H2O/SG), 56% v/v and 67% v/v, and a H2S concentration in the range 100–220 ppmv,db were investigated: the highest CO conversion (∼95%) was observed in the base case (Case A GHSV) at 67% v/v H2O/SG, and 450 °C, the lower the operating temperature the lower the CO concentration, the lower the gas hourly space velocity the higher the CO conversion and the higher the H2O/SG the higher the CO conversion. The effect of H2S variation on CO conversion was also studied, keeping the operating temperature constant (≈365 °C) and using the Case D GHSV: CO conversion increased as the H2S concentration increased and XCO ≈ 40%. Selectivity was not influenced by the parameters investigated. Finally, the effect of the catalyst on tar removal was studied and a CO conversion close to 85% was found.


Conference Papers | 2016

Harmonised Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity, Heating and Cooling from Biomass

Ludwiczek N, Bacovsky D, Sonnleitner A, Strasser C. Harmonised Greenhouse Gas Calculations for Electricity, Heating and Cooling from Biomass. e-nova 2016 (oral presentation). November 2016, Pinkafeld, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

Kraussler M, Binder M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy. 24 December 2016;

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Conference Papers | 2016

Hythane from biomass steam gasification as natural gas substitute in industrial applications

Kraussler M, Schindler P, Hofbauer H. Hythane from biomass steam gasification as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Biorestec (poster). October 2016, Sitges, Spain.

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Technical Reports | 2016

IEA Bioenergy Countries´ Report

Bacovsky D, Dissauer C, Enigl M, Ludwiczek N, Pointner C, Sonnleitner A, Verma VK. IEA Bioenergy Countries´ Report. IEA Bioenergy Countries´ Report. August 2016.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Impact of Na Promoter on Structural Properties and Catalytic Performance of CoNi/Al2O3 Nanocatalysts for the CO Hydrogenation Process: Fischer–Tropsch Technology

Nikparsa P, Mirzaei AA, Rauch R. Impact of Na Promoter on Structural Properties and Catalytic Performance of CoNi/Al2O3 Nanocatalysts for the CO Hydrogenation Process: Fischer–Tropsch Technology. Catalysis Letters. January 2016;146(1): 61-71.

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Conference Papers | 2016

Improving the propanol yield of mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam gasification

Binder M, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Improving the propanol yield of mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam gasification. iSGA 2016 - 5th International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (invited lecture). November/December 2016, Busan, Korea.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Influence of firebed temperature on particle emissions in a residential wood pellet boiler

Gehrig M, Jäger D, Pelz SK, Weissinger A, Groll A, Thorwarth H, Haslinger W. Influence of firebed temperature on particle emissions in a residential wood pellet boiler. Atmospheric Environment. July 2016;136: 61-67.

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The crucial point in inorganic particle formation from biomass combustion is the temperature-dependent release of inorganic compounds, especially potassium (K). Currently, common wood fuels comprise of a comparatively low amount of K, but the increased usage of wood energy requires new feedstocks in the future. Potentially new feedstocks, such as short rotation coppice (SRC), fuels from agriculture (e.g., straw), or wood from broad-leafed trees of low rotation, contain usually high ash contents and/or high K concentrations. Apparently, these feedstocks will cause increased inorganic particle emissions from biomass combustion processes. The principle of a decreased firebed temperature as a primary measure aiming at a retention of K in the ashes of the firebed is a common approach for particle emission reduction and was investigated in several previous studies. The present study describes the usage of an ash-rich fuel from SRC pellets made from willow in a residential pellet boiler modified with an unique prototype of direct water-based firebed cooling. This test setup enables the study of the isolated impact of decreased firebed temperatures and its influence on the combustion process and emissions as well. A statistically significant effect of the firebed cooling on temperatures below the burner plate as on gaseous HCl and SO2 was found. The high ash content of the used fuel limited the effectiveness of the applied direct firebed cooling in residential biomass combustion. The accumulation of a thick and thermal insulating ash layer above the burner plate decreased the heat transfer, limited the cooling efficiency, and revealed deviations from the expected particle formation process.


Other publication | 2016

Influence of leak tightness and heat storage capacity of biomass room heating appliances on thermal efficiency

Sturmlechner R, Reichert G, Stressler H, Aigenbauer S, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Haslinger W. Influence of leak tightness and heat storage capacity of biomass room heating appliances on thermal efficiency. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Investigation of real life operation of biomass room heating appliances – results of a European survey

Wöhler M, Andersen JS, Becker G, Persson H, Reichert G, Schön C, Schmidl C, Jaeger D, Pelz SK. Investigation of real life operation of biomass room heating appliances – results of a European survey. Applied Energy. 1 May 2016;169: 240-249.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Investigation of User Behavior and Assessment of Typical Operation Mode for Different Types of Firewood Room Heating Appliances in Austria

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Schwabl M, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Investigation of User Behavior and Assessment of Typical Operation Mode for Different Types of Firewood Room Heating Appliances in Austria. Renewable Energy. August 2016;93: 245-254.

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Firewood heaters like firewood roomheaters, tiled stoves and residential biomass cookers are commonly used for supplying the residences with renewable heat. However, these kinds of appliances were identified as responsible for relevant amounts of gaseous CO and OGC as well as particulate emissions causing negative health effects. Beside technological reasons, the operating conditions and the user behavior are essential reasons for increased emissions, especially in real life operation.

Therefore, this study aimed at an investigation and assessment of typical real life user behavior by a survey. Based on the findings effective and customer friendly technological and non-technological optimization approaches for a better and more environmental friendly real life performance were defined.

The results of the study showed principally similar user behavior of all considered types of appliances regarding most relevant operation characteristics, i.e. kind, properties and amount of used fuels, ignition procedure and air valve settings. Most effective non-technological optimization approaches were found for an enhancement of external training arrangements and the development of user friendly manuals that aimed mainly at an improvement of the ignition procedure from bottom–up to top–down ignition method. The use of devices with an automatically controlled combustion air supply was identified as promising technological measure.


Conference Papers | 2016

Investigations of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant by means of computation particle fluid dynamics

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Investigations of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant by means of computation particle fluid dynamics. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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