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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant

Retschitzegger S, Brunner T, Waldmann B, Obernberger I. Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(10):5670-5683.

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To systematically investigate high-temperature corrosion of superheaters in biomass combined heat and power
(CHP) plants, a long-term test run (5 months) with online corrosion probes was performed in an Austrian CHP plant (28 MWNCV; steam parameters: 32 t/h at 480 °C and 63 bar) firing chemically untreated wood chips. Two corrosion probes were applied in parallel in the radiative section of the boiler at average flue gas temperatures of 880 and 780 °C using the steel 13CrMo4-5 for the measurements. Corrosion rates were determined for surface temperatures between 400 and 560 °C. The results show generally moderate corrosion rates and a clear dependence upon the flue gas temperatures and the surface temperatures of the corrosion probes, but no influence of the flue gas velocity has been observed. The data are to be used to create corrosion diagrams to determine maximum steam temperatures for superheaters in future plants, which are justifiable regarding the corrosion rate. Dedicated measurements were performed at the plant during the long-term corrosion probe test run to gain insight into the chemical environment of the corrosion probes. From fuel analyses, the molar 2S/Cl ratio was calculated with an average of 6.0, which indicates a low risk for high-temperature corrosion. Chemical analyses of aerosols sampled at the positions of the corrosion probes showed that no chlorine is present in condensed form at the positions investigated. Deposit probe measurements performed at the same positions and analyses of the deposits also showed only small amounts of chlorine in the deposits, mainly found at the leeward position of the probes. Subsequent to the test run, the corrosion probes have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results confirmed the deposit probe measurements and showed only minor Cl concentrations in the deposits and no Cl at the corrosion front. Because, in the case of Cl-catalyzed active oxidation, a layer of Cl is known to be found at the corrosion front, this mechanism is assumed to be not of relevance in the case at hand. Instead, elevated S concentrations were detected at the corrosion front, but the corrosion mechanism has not yet been clarified.


Other Presentations | 2013

Ausbrandregelung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

Rumpf, M. Ausbrandregelung von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2013.

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 Die Anzahl der installierten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen ist in letzter Zeit deutlich gestiegen. Aus diesem Grund ist es umso wichtiger eine schadstoffarme und effiziente Verbrennung zu ermöglichen. Genau diese Anforderung stellt jedoch eine große Herausforderung für deren Regelung dar. Der optimale Restsauerstoffgehalt des Rauchgases, im Sinne von niedrigen Kohlenmonoxidemissionen (CO-Emissionen) bei bestmöglichem Wirkungsgrad, ist sehr stark vom Betriebszustand, von der Anlagengeometrie und vom verwendeten Brennstoff abhängig. Diese Tatsache wird jedoch derzeit bei den Regelungen von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen nicht oder nur teilweise berücksichtigt. Um hohe CO-Emissionen aufgrund von Sauerstoffmangel in jedem Fall zu vermeiden, werden Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen üblicherweise mit vergleichsweise hohem Sauerstoff betrieben. Diese Maßnahme geht jedoch mit einer unerwünschten Reduktion des Wirkungsgrades der Feuerung einher. Diese Arbeit hat zum Ziel eine Strategie zu entwickeln, welche das Luftverhältnis sowie auch die Luftstufung während des Betriebes dahingehend anpasst, dass stets ein möglichst effizienter und dennoch schadstoffarmer Betrieb gewährleistet wird. Die im Rahmen dieser Masterarbeit behandelten Arbeiten, wurden anhand einer handelsüblichen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlage durchgeführt. Die verwendete Anlage wird mit Hackgut betrieben und hat eine Kesselnennleistung von 30 kW. Für die Anwendung einer Strategie zur Reduktion der CO-Emissionen wäre es von großem Vorteil, wenn der CO-Gehalt des Rauchgases gemessen werden könnte. Derzeit gibt es jedoch nur sehr teure Rauchgasanalyseeinheiten, welche für eine dauerhafte Bestimmung des CO-Gehaltes des Rauchgases geeignet sind. Somit war bis jetzt eine Messung des CO-Gehalts nur bei großen Biomassefeuerungsanlagen wirtschaftlich. In dieser Arbeit wurde zunächst eine Marktanalyse zu preiswerten Sensoren zur Detektion unverbrannter Komponenten im Rauchgas durchgeführt. Es wurden ausschließlich Sensoren untersucht, die aufgrund ihres geringen Preises auch wirtschaftlich eingesetzt werden können. Dabei zeigte sich, dass es derzeit zwei Sensoren gibt, welche diese Anforderungen erfüllen. Diese Sensoren dienen jedoch lediglich zur Detektion von unverbrannten Komponenten im Rauchgas und sind nicht in der Lage den CO-Gehalt des Rauchgases exakt zu messen. Aus diesem Grund wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen CO-Konzentration und Sensorsignal untersucht und anschließend mathematisch beschrieben, wobei die wesentlichen Querempfindlichkeiten berücksichtigt wurden. Da die physikalischen Zusammenhänge sehr komplex und zu einem wesentlichen Teil nicht bekannt waren, wurde das mathematische Modell mit Hilfe der experimentellen Modellbildung ermittelt, wobei die verwendeten Messdaten einen möglichst großen Bereich der verschiedenen Einflussparameter beinhalteten. In weiterer Folge wurden umfassende Testläufe zur Untersuchung der Auswirkung der Leistung, des Luftverhältnisses im Brennstoffbett, des gesamten Luftverhältnisses und des Brennstoffwassergehaltes auf die CO-Emissionen durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass es für einen möglichst effizienten und gleichzeitig schadstoffarmen Betrieb notwendig ist, das Luftverhältnis im Brennstoffbett sowie den Sekundär"-luft"-massen"-strom in Abhängigkeit der geforderten Leistung zu variieren. Darauf aufbauend wurde eine geeignete Strategie zur Umsetzung dieser Maßnahmen entwickelt und implementiert. Dabei werden die Führungsgrößen für den Restsauerstoffgehalt sowie das Luftverhältnis im Brennstoffbett laufend an die geforderte Leistung angepasst. Zusätzlich dazu wird die Führungsgröße für den Restsauerstoffgehalt durch einen Suchalgorithmus zur Minimierung der CO-Emissionen variiert. Schlussendlich wurde die entwickelte Strategie mit Hilfe eines typischen Lastzyklus experimentell verifiziert. 


Other Presentations | 2013

Austrian context for biowaste and case study on brewery waste

Bochmann G. Austrian context for biowaste and case study on brewery waste, Biogaz Europe 2013, 20th of March 2013, Nantes, France.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Automatisierung und Visualisierung einer Anlage zur Wasserstoffgewinnung aus Biomasse

Malits, M. Automatisierung und Visualisierung einer Anlage zur Wasserstoffgewinnung aus Biomasse, Master Thesis, Fachhochschule Technikum Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Behavior of inorganic matter in a dual fluidized steam gasification plant

Kirnbauer F, Koch M, Koch R, Aichernig C, Hofbauer H. Behavior of inorganic matter in a dual fluidized steam gasification plant. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(6):3316-31.

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Ash components of biomass fuels can cause fouling, slagging, and bed material agglomeration during thermal utilization in fluidized bed combustion and gasification plants. The influence of ash components on these problems in dual fluidized bed biomass gasification plants is investigated in an industrial scale plant in Güssing, Austria. Samples of fouling are analyzed, and the results are evaluated. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence analysis and thermal analyses such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Mass balances of inorganic matter are presented, evaluating different loop configurations. The analyses showed high potassium contents compared to the fuel ash composition in fouling of up to 23% by weight. The potassium content of fly ash with a particle size smaller than 200 μm is half that of coarse fly ash with a particle size larger than 200 μm. The thermal analyses showed a large difference between samples of inorganic streams such as fly ash or fly char and fouling. Different fractions of fly ash samples (particle fraction smaller than 200 μm and particle fraction larger than 200 μm) showed similar thermal behavior: endothermic weight losses at around 400 C and around 720-820 C caused by decomposition of carbonates. The composition of inorganic matters of fly ash and fly char is similar. The elemental composition of deposits at the cyclone wall and the first heat exchanger in the flue gas path showed high potassium contents up to 23.6%. While samples of fly ash and fly char did not show significant melting in their thermal behavior, melting could be detected with fouling at temperatures higher than 1000 C. Mass balances of inorganic matter showed a flow of potassium oxide from the combustion reactor to the gasification reactor, which leads to unexpected high potassium concentrations in the fly char. A reduction of ash loops reduces the amount of potassium that is transferred from the combustion reactor to the gasification reactor. Recommendations are made for the operation of dual fluidized bed gasification plants in terms of ash handling to reduce tendencies for fouling, slagging, and bed material agglomeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Conference contributions | 2013

Bioenergie aus Mikroalgen - Forschung und Vernetzung im Kompetenzzentrum BIOENERGY 2020+

Sonnleitner A. Vernetzungsworkshop "Algen als biogene Ressource - Akteure in Österreich", Bioenergie aus Mikroalgen - Forschung und Vernetzung im Kompetenzzentrum BIOENERGY 2020+, 6th of November, Wieselburg-Land, Austria, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Bioenergielösungen im Neubau

Schmidl C, Moser W, Reichert G. Bioenergielösungen im Neubau, Veranstaltung des Biomasseverbandes "Erneuerbare Wärme-Schlüssel zur Energiewende" 2013, 8th of May 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Bioenergy and Microalgae - Research and networking activities at the Austrian competence centre BIOENERGY 2020+ with a special focus on Algae energy

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D, Wörgetter M. J –EraCenter, Workshop “Bioenergy and Microalgae - Research and networking activities at the Austrian competence centre BIOENERGY 2020+ with a special focus on Algae energy”, 21st of November, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biofuels in Austria – yesterday, today and tomorrow

Wörgetter M, Bacovsky D. Biofuels in Austria – yesterday, today and tomorrow, 20th International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels (ISAF) 2013, 25th-27th of March 2013, Cape Town, South Africa.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biofuels RD&D in BIOENERGY 2020+

Bacovsky D. Biofuels RD&D in BIOENERGY 2020+, Eco-Mobility Conference 2013, 3rd-4th of October 2013, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Biomass Price Volatility - Analysis of the Historic Biomass and Energy Price volatility in the Austrian Market

Kristöfel C, Strasser C, Morawetz U, Schmidt J, Schmid E. Biomass Price Volatility - Analysis of the Historic Biomass and Energy Price volatility in the Austrian Market, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1721-1727.

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Several energy and agricultural commodities have experienced higher price volatility in recent years. Hence, the interest in food and energy security issues as well as price volatility has increased, particularly since the rise in food and energy commodity prices in 2007/2008. Volatility is associated with risk since higher price volatility leads to additional costs that are often shared and transmitted along the supply chain to the final consumers. Volatility of woody biomass prices is also possibly higher due to increased market dynamics and integration as well as renewable energy policy intervention. We compute historic price volatility using the standard deviation of log returns as well as univariate GARCH models and empirically analyze whether or not price volatility of woody biomass commodities has increased in recent years. We also compare the historic price volatility of woody biomass to the price volatility of agricultural commodities and fossil fuels. Results indicate that the price volatility of some woody biomass commodities has increased, but it is still lower than of agricultural biomass and fossil fuels.


Other Presentations | 2013

Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in an AD process?

Ortner M, Rachbauer L, Somitsch W, Fuchs W. Can bioavailability of trace nutrients be measured in an AD process? Bioenergy Conference 2013, 4th-6th of September 2013, Jyväskylä, Finnland.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Characterisation of Jatropha mahafalensis oil

Sonnleitner A. Characterisation of Jatropha mahafalensis oil, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Characterization of modern biomass heating and domestic hot water supply systems

Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Schwarz M, Schwabl M, Golicza L, Carlon E, Wopienka E, Verma V. Characterization of modern biomass heating and domestic hot water supply systems, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Co-firing of imported wood pellets - an option to efficiently save CO2 emissions in Europe?

Ehrig R, Behrendt F. Co-firing of imported wood pellets - An option to efficiently save CO2 emissions in Europe? Energy Policy. 2013;59:283-300.

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In this paper the energy and carbon footprints of pellet imports from Australia, West Canada, and Russia for co-firing in Europe are investigated. Their ecologic and economic performances are proven by applying the Belgian and UK co-firing subsidy systems, which require dedicated sustainability evaluations. Based on the modelling of different subsidy schemes and price scenarios, the present paper identifies favourable conditions for the use of biomass co-firing in Germany and Austria, which currently do not have dedicated co-firing incentives. The present paper shows that under present conditions, co-firing has a narrow financial gap to coal with -3 to 4€ Cent/kWhel and has low CO2 mitigation costs compared to other renewables. Moreover, it is shown that co-firing is one of the most cost-attractive options to reach the EU-2020 targets. For policy makers, the support of co-firing is found to be very efficient in terms of cost-benefit ratio. It is proven that the co-firing subsidy schemes might direct supply chain decisions towards options with low energy and carbon impacts. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
 


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: Possible interactions of fuels

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: Possible interactions of fuels. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(6):3261-73.

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Co-gasification of biomass and plastics was investigated in a 100 kW dual fluidized-bed pilot plant using four types of plastic material of different origins and soft wood pellets. The proportion of plastics was varied within a broad range to assess the interaction of the materials. The product gas composition was considerably influenced by co-gasification, whereas the changes were nonlinear. More CO and CO2 were measured in the product gas from co-gasification than would be expected from linear interpolation of mono-gasification of the materials. Less CH4 and C2H 4 were formed, and the tar content in the product gas was considerably lower than presumed. With the generation of more product gas than expected, co-gasification of wood and plastic materials also had other beneficial effects. Because of the fuel mixtures, more radicals of different types were available that interacted with each other and with the fluidization steam, enhancing the reforming reactions. Wood char had a positive effect on polymer decomposition, steam reforming, and tar reduction. As a result of the more active splash zone during co-gasification of wood and plastics, contact between gas and bed material was enhanced, which is crucial for catalytic tar removal. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Conversion of fuel nitrogen in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Conversion of fuel nitrogen in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel. 2013;106:793-801.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel. 2013;107:787-799.

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Steam gasification of plastic materials was studied in a dual fluidized bed gasification pilot plant (DFB). Several types of plastics, which are available in large amounts in waste streams, were investigated: PE, PP, and mixtures of PE + PS, PE + PET and PE + PP. It was found that the product gas from PE was rich in CH4 and C2H4 and had a LCV of 25 MJ/N m 3. About 22% of PE was converted to the monomer C2H4. Different mixtures of PE with other polymers showed, that the concentrations of CH4 and C2H4increased with an increasing proportion of PE and that they were the main decomposition products of PE. The product gas from pure PP contained more CH4 and less C2H4compared to the product gas from PE. The polymer mixtures behaved differently from the pure substances. Significantly more H2 and CO were generated from PE + PP and PE + PS. It can be assumed that the decomposition products of the two polymers in the mixture interacted strongly and alternately influenced the gasification process. More water was converted, so the gas production increased. The reforming reactions were enhanced and yielded H2 and CO at the expense of CH4 and C2H4. The mixture of PE + PET differed from the other polymers because of the high oxygen content of PET. Thus, 28% of CO2 were measured in the product gas. By contrast, CO2 was in the range of 8%, when oxygen-free polymers were gasified and CO2 was only produced from reactions with steam. Gasification of polymers resulted in significantly high tar loads in the product gas in the range of 100 g/N m 3. The GCMS analysis of tars showed that tars from polymers mainly consisted of PAH and aro-matics. Naphthalene was the most important tar compound. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Conversion of mixed plastic wastes in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel. 2013;107:787-99.

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Details

Steam gasification of plastic materials was studied in a dual fluidized bed gasification pilot plant (DFB). Several types of plastics, which are available in large amounts in waste streams, were investigated: PE, PP, and mixtures of PE + PS, PE + PET and PE + PP. It was found that the product gas from PE was rich in CH4 and C2H4 and had a LCV of 25 MJ/N m 3. About 22% of PE was converted to the monomer C2H4. Different mixtures of PE with other polymers showed, that the concentrations of CH4 and C2H4 increased with an increasing proportion of PE and that they were the main decomposition products of PE. The product gas from pure PP contained more CH4 and less C2H4 compared to the product gas from PE. The polymer mixtures behaved differently from the pure substances. Significantly more H2 and CO were generated from PE + PP and PE + PS. It can be assumed that the decomposition products of the two polymers in the mixture interacted strongly and alternately influenced the gasification process. More water was converted, so the gas production increased. The reforming reactions were enhanced and yielded H2 and CO at the expense of CH4 and C2H4. The mixture of PE + PET differed from the other polymers because of the high oxygen content of PET. Thus, 28% of CO were measured in the product gas. By contrast, CO2 was in the range of 8%, when oxygen-free polymers were gasified and CO2 was only produced from reactions with steam. Gasification of polymers resulted in significantly high tar loads in the product gas in the range of 100 g/N m 3. The GCMS analysis of tars showed that tars from polymers mainly consisted of PAH and aro-matics. Naphthalene was the most important tar compound. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Conference contributions | 2013

Correlation between CO OFF-gassing and Linoleic fatty Acid content of wood Chips and Pellets

Emhofer W, Pöllinger-Zierler B, Siegmund B, Haslinger W, Leitner E. Correlation between CO OFF-gassing and Linoleic fatty Acid content of wood Chips and Pellets, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1362-1364.

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During storage of wood pellets emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be detected. These off-gases have been reported to originate from autooxidation reactions of woods own fatty acids, but data on CO formation rates based on fatty acid content is still scarce. In this paper data on the formation rates of CO from oxidation of pure linoleic acid are presented and compared to CO formation rates measured from spruce shavings, spruce sawdust and pellets made from the respective raw materials. To determine whether linoleic acid content is a realistic prediction tool for CO formation the fatty acid contents of the spruce materials have been determined and a comparison of predicted CO formation rates (based on linoleic acid content) to actually measured CO formation rates has been made. The results show that, albeit the fact that the determination of linoleic acid content is not the sole determining factor for an accurate prediction of CO formation rates, it is a helpful indicator in estimating a critical maximum rate of CO formation. The actual formation rates for CO, however, are typically lower than the predicted values and depend to a large extent on the history of the material and whether or not it has been activated. Activation includes treatments such as pelletizing, drying and/or milling.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2013

Development of a biomass heating device for low energy and passive houses

Schwabl M, Schwarz M, Figl F, Carvalho L, Staudinger M, Kalb W, et al. Development of a biomass heating device for low energy and passive houses. Management of Environmental Quality. 2013;24(5):652-66.

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urpose: Decreasing energy demand due to improved building standards requires the development of new biomass combustion technologies to be able to provide individual biomass heating solutions. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, the development of a pellet water heating stove with minimal emission at high thermal efficiency. Design/methodology/approach: The single components of a 10 kW water heating pellet stove are analysed and partly redesigned considering the latest scientific findings and experimental know-how in combustion engineering. The outcome of this development is a 12 kW prototype which is subsequently down-scaled to a 6 kW prototype. Finally, the results of the development are evaluated by testing of an accredited institute. Findings: Based on an existing pellet water heating stove, the total excess air ratio was reduced, a strict air staging was implemented and the fuel supply was homogenized. All three measures improved the operating performance regarding emissions and thermal efficiency. The evaluation of the development process showed that the CO emissions are reduced by over 90 per cent during full load and by 30-60 per cent during minimum load conditions. Emissions of particulate matter are reduced by 70 per cent and the thermal efficiency increased to 95 per cent. Originality/value: The result represents a new state of technology in this sector for minimal emissions and maximal thermal efficiency, which surpasses the directives of the Eco label "UZ37" in Austria and "Blauer Engel" in Germany, which are amongst the most stringent performance requirements in the European Union. Hence this design possesses a high potential as heating solution for low and passive energy houses. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Conference contributions | 2013

Development of a test gas generator for biomass gasification derived process gas - a test methodology for quality insurance and development

Martini S, Kleinhappl M. Development of a test gas generator for biomass gasification derived process gas - a test methodology for quality insurance and development, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 775-777.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Dual fluidized bed gasification: operational experiences and future developments

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Gasification Technologies: Delivering the Potential, Workshop “Dual fluidized bed gasification: Operational experiences and future Developments”, 23rd of October, Newcastle, England, 2013.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Dynamic modelling of hydronic heating systems supplied by a biomass boiler for residential application: solutions for the optimization of the control strategy

Rimoldi, M. Dynamic modelling of hydronic heating systems supplied by a biomass boiler for residential application: solutions for the optimization of the control strategy, Master Thesis, Polytechnic University of Milan, Milan, Italy, 2013.

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Conference contributions | 2013

Economic Comparison of Torrefaction-Based and Conventional Pellet Production-to-End-Use Chains

Ehrig R, et al. Economic Comparison of Torrefaction-Based and Conventional Pellet Production-to-End-Use Chains, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. p 1342-1349.

Details

Biomass upgrading through torrefaction is expected to relevantly reduce biomass trade costs and thus energy costs for the end-user. In this framework, the present work aims at defining crucial technical and cost parameters for the production, fuel properties, supply and end-use of torrefied pellets. The findings are used to compare four real-case wood pellet with corresponding torrefied pellet supply chains. Input data are derived from laboratory fuel, pelletising and storage experiments with torrefied biomass provided from European producers, cost estimations based on experience from related technology engineering and set-up as well as from expert consultations. This allows a step-by-step comparison of cost advantages and additional expenses from pretreatment to end-user. As a result, torrefied pellets turn out to be a certain alternative for wood pellets. The cost comparison demonstrates that the production of torrefied pellets is still much more cost-intensive, but can be partly compensated by reduced transportation costs. At the end-user, heat production in small-scale pellet boilers is technically feasible, but with slightly higher costs. Co-firing torrefied pellets in large-scale coal plants can be cost-competitive to industrial wood pellets, when no additional retrofit and operation and maintenance costs incur.


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