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Conference contributions | 2013

Experimentelle Untersuchungen der Hochtemperaturkorrosion von 13CrMo4-5 in einem mit Biomasse befeuerten Fallrohr und ihre Übertragbarkeit auf Großfeuerungsanlagen

Gruber T. Experimentelle Untersuchungen der Hochtemperaturkorrosion von 13CrMo4-5 in einem mit Biomasse befeuerten Fallrohr und ihre Übertragbarkeit auf Großfeuerungsanlagen, VDI-Fachkonferenz: Feuerungen und Kessel - Beläge und Korrosion - in Großfeuerungsanlagen 2013, 24th-25th of June 2013, Düsseldorf, Germany.

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Contributions at other events | 2013

Extending the range of feedstock of the dual fluidized bed gasification process towards residues and waste

Wilk, V. Extending the range of feedstock of the dual fluidized bed gasification process towards residues and waste, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Peer-reviewed publications | 2013

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis to Biofuels (BtL Process)

Rauch R, Kiennemann A, Sauciuc A. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis to Biofuels (BtL Process). The role of catalysis for the sustainable production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals. ISBN 978-0-444-56330-9 2013:397-443.

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Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is one option to produce liquid transportation fuels from carbon-containing feedstocks. In the past, FT synthesis was used mainly to convert coal or natural gas to diesel and gasoline. In the last decade, much R&D effort has been made to use this technology to convert biomass to a high-quality transportation fuel. In this chapter, the technology for BtL (conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels over FT synthesis) is described, from synthesis gas production including requirements on the gas quality to a detailed description of the FT synthesis itself. The main focus of this chapter is to give an overview of the types of catalysts, also including their preparation, reduction, and aging; the types of FT reactors; and also the reaction conditions including kinetic laws and mechanistic proposals.


Contributions at other events | 2013

Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons from Biomass Gasification Modeling and Experimental Study

Sadooghi, P. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbons from Biomass Gasification Modeling and Experimental Study, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2013.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Implementing an advanced waste separation step in an MBT plant: assessment of technical, economic and environmental impacts

Meirhofer M, Piringer G, Rixrath D, Sommer M, Ragossnig AM. Implementing an advanced waste separation step in an MBT plant: Assessment of technical, economic and environmental impacts. Waste Management and Research. 2013;31(10 SUPPL.):35-45.

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Heavy fractions resulting from mechanical treatment stages of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants are posing very specific demands with regard to further treatment (large portions of inert and high-caloric components). Based on the current Austrian legal situation such a waste stream cannot be landfilled and must be thermally treated. The aim of this research was to evaluate if an inert fraction generated from this waste stream with advanced separation technologies, two sensor-based [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), X-ray transmission (XRT)] and two mechanical systems (wet and dry) is able to be disposed of. The performance of the treatment options for separation was evaluated by characterizing the resulting product streams with respect to purity and yield. Complementing the technical evaluation of the processing options, an assessment of the economic and global warming effects of the change in waste stream routing was conducted. The separated inert fraction was evaluated with regard to landfilling. The remaining high-caloric product stream was evaluated with regard to thermal utilization. The results show that, in principal, the selected treatment technologies can be used to separate high-caloric from inert components. Limitations were identified with regard to the product qualities achieved, as well as to the economic expedience of the treatment options. One of the sensor-based sorting systems (X-ray) was able to produce the highest amount of disposeable heavy fraction (44.1%), while having the lowest content of organic (2.0% Cbiogenic per kg waste input) components. None of the high-caloric product streams complied with the requirements for solid recovered fuels as defined in the Austrian Ordinance on Waste Incineration. The economic evaluation illustrates the highest specific treatment costs for the XRT (€23.15 per t), followed by the NIR-based sorting system (€15.67 per t), and the lowest costs for the air separation system (€10.79 per t). Within the ecological evaluation it can be shown that the results depend strongly on the higher heating value of the high caloric light fraction and on the content of Cbiogenic of the heavy fraction. Therefore, the XRT system had the best results for the overall GWP [-14 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) per t of input waste] and the NIR-based the worst (193 kg CO2 eq per t of input waste). It is concluded that three of the treatment options would be suitable under the specific conditions considered here. Of these, sensor-based sorting is preferable owing to its flexibility. © The Author(s) 2013.


Conference contributions | 2013

Improvement of real life operation performance of residential wood combustion

Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Aigenbauer S, Figl F, Kirchhof JM, Moser W, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Verma V, Wöhler M. Improvement of real life operation performance of residential wood combustion, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Influence of fuel feeding positions on gasification in dual fluidized bed gasifiers

Wilk V, Schmid JC, Hofbauer H. Influence of fuel feeding positions on gasification in dual fluidized bed gasifiers. Biomass Bioenergy. 2013;54:46-58.

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An in-bed and an on-bed feeding system are implemented in a dual fluidized bed gasifier in order to investigate the influence of the fuel feeding position on the gasification process. Two bed materials, fresh and used olivine, are used because of their varying catalytic activity. The comparison of in-bed and on-bed feeding of wood pellets shows that in-bed feeding is more favorable, because lower tar concentrations are achieved and the gas composition is closer to water-gas shift equilibrium. Better mixing of bed material and fuel particles occurs with in-bed feeding. The residence time of the gas phase in the fluidized bed is longer in the case of in-bed feeding, and therefore better performance of the gasifier is achieved. Sufficient residence time of the fuel in the bubbling bed is important when a less active bed material is used. More active bed material is capable of compensating for the shorter residence time of the gas phase in contact with bed material during on-bed feeding. •Experimental investigation of in-bed and on-bed feeding.•Two bed materials (catalytic activity) and two fuels (devolatilization behavior).•In-bed feeding more favorable due to lower tar concentration and better gas quality.•Residence time of the gas phase in the fluidized bed is longer during in-bed feeding.•More active bed material compensates for shorter residence time of the gas phase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Influence of fuel particle size on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Influence of fuel particle size on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;115:139-51.

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The influence of the distribution of fuel particle size on steam gasification was studied systematically in a dual fluidized bed gasifier. Pilot plant gasification experiments have been conducted using sawdust and pellets produced from the same raw material. Three different kinds of waste wood with a broad particle size distribution were also considered for comparison. The fuels differ in their content of particles smaller than 1 mm of equivalent diameter. With an increasing proportion of particles smaller than 1 mm, the product gas contained less H2 and more CO and CH4. Less product gas was generated and the concentration of tar increased. It is observed that entrainment of small fuel particles plays an important role in the dual fluidized bed gasifier. Based on the superficial gas velocity in the freeboard of the gasification reactor, a limiting diameter for the entrainment of fuel particles can be determined. Under the conditions investigated a total of 22 wt.% of fuel particles present in the mixture of sawdust and pellets was entrained very rapidly after feeding because of their size. They mainly devolatilize in the freeboard and only have limited contact with the catalytic bed material. Therefore, these volatiles are less likely to be reformed and more tar is found in the product gas. As a conclusion, the particle size determines the region where the thermal conversion of the fuel particle mainly takes place: within the fluidized bed or in the freeboard. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
 


Other publication | 2013

Innovative Energietechnologien in Österreich - Marktentwicklung 2013

Biermayr P, Eberl M, Enigl M, Rechner H, Kristöfel C, Leonhartsberger K, Maringer F, Moidl S, Strasser C, Weiss W, Wörgetter M. Innovative Energietechnologien in Österreich – Marktentwicklung. Berichte aus Energie und Umweltforschung. 2013:26.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements

Brunner T, Fluch J, Obernberger I, Warnecke R. Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;105:154-60.

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In order to gain deeper insights into aerosol formation processes during MSW combustion, test runs with a specially developed high-temperature aerosol measurement and sampling device, the so called high-temperature impactor (HTI), as well as subsequent chemical analyses of the particles sampled have been performed at a real-scale plant. The results show that aerosol formation during MSW combustion is based on the volatilisation of minor amounts of Si-, Ca-, Mg- and Al-compounds followed by nucleation in the fuel bed region which is then followed by excessive condensation of alkaline metal sulphates and especially chlorides in the radiative and the convective boiler sections. At lower flue gas temperatures in the superheater as well as the economiser section also the condensation of heavy metal (Zn, Pb) chlorides provides contributions to aerosol formation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Jatropha mahafalensis oil from Madagascar: Properties and suitability as liquid biofuel

Sonnleitner A, Rathbauer J, Randriamalala JR, Raoliarivelo LIB, Andrianarisoa JH, Rabeniala R, et al. Jatropha mahafalensis oil from Madagascar: Properties and suitability as liquid biofuel. Energy for Sustainable Development. 2013;17(4):326-30.

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Access to affordable and renewable sources of energy is crucial to reducing poverty and enhancing rural development in countries of the global South. Straight vegetable oil was recently identified as a possible alternative to conventional biomass for rural energy supply. In this context, the Jatropha curcas Linn. species has been extensively investigated with regard to its potential as a biofuel feedstock. In contrast, only little is known about Jatropha mahafalensis Jum. & H. Perrier, which is an indigenous and endemic representative of the Jatropha genus in Madagascar. This paper explores the potential and suitability of J. mahafalensis as a biofuel feedstock. Seed samples were collected in the area of Soalara in south-western Madagascar in February and September 2011. Two agro-ecological zones (coastal area and calcareous plateau) and two plant age groups (below and above 10. years) were considered. These four sample groups were analyzed with regard to oil properties, element contents, and fatty acid profiles. Measured values differed greatly between the two harvests, probably owing to different climatic or storage conditions. No direct relation between age of trees or location and oil quality could be established. The analyses indicate that J. mahafalensis oil can be used in oil lamps, cooking stoves and stationary combustion engines for electrification or for biodiesel production. However, modifications in storage and extraction methods, as well as further processing steps are necessary to enable its utilization as a straight vegetable oil and feedstock for biodiesel production. If these technical requirements can be met, and if it turns out that J. mahafalensis oil is economically competitive in comparison with firewood, charcoal, paraffin and petroleum, it can be considered as a promising feedstock for rural energy supply. © 2013 International Energy Initiative.


Conference contributions | 2013

Kerosin from wood over FT synthesis

Rauch R. Kerosin from wood over FT synthesis, 7. Kolloquium Sustainable BioEconomy, KIT, 9th of December 2013, Karlsruhe, Germany. (oral presentation)

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Conference Papers | 2013

Leak air in a double-wall chimney system

Lichtenegger K, Hebenstreit B, Pointner C. Leak air in a double-wall chimney system. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2013;410:012059. (peer reviewed)

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Operating biomass stoves in modern buildings with tight shells often requires a room-independent air supply. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with fresh air entering through the annular gap. For this setup, a mathematical model has been developed and checked with experimental data. It turned out that for commercially available chimneys, leakage is not negligible and inclusion of leak air in the calculation is crucial for reproduction of the experimental data. Even with inclusion of this effect, discrepancies remain which call for further investigations and a refinement of the model.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Life cycle modeling of energy matrix scenarios, Belgian power and partial heat mixes as case study

Rubio Rodríguez MA, Feitó Cespón M, De Ruyck J, Ocaña Guevara VS, Verma VK. Life cycle modeling of energy matrix scenarios, Belgian power and partial heat mixes as case study. Appl Energy. 2013;107:329-37.

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The present paper introduces a life cycle modeling approach for representing actual demand of energy or energy intensive products delivered within a system (electricity, heat, etc.) for optimization of the energy mix, according to some of the available life cycle impact assessments (LCIAs). Unlike classical LCA modeling approach, the real amount of several energy products leaving the system and the interactions due to the presence of multi-output processes are considered within the present approach. As a case study, future scenarios are obtained for the Belgian electricity mix production and the heat mix potentially substituted by CHP or biomass, switching between abandoning or not power from nuclear energy. The possibility of using natural gas, biomass for cogeneration, wind power and solar photovoltaic energy are considered within the availability ranges of these resources. Finally, results are presented from successive optimizations according to the sustainability potential defined in a previous paper. A pathway to a more sustainable Belgian energy system is obtained. Finally it is concluded that under the modeling conditions and without nuclear energy it is not possible to obtain a reduction of GHGs and despite diminishing of non-renewable resource consumption, a rising of toxicity is obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Conference contributions | 2013

Logwood Stove with Automatic Air Control Powered by Thermoelectric Generators

Mair C, Höftberger E, Moser W. Logwood Stove with Automatic Air Control Powered by Thermoelectric Generators, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Mathematical modeling of sulfur deactivation effects on steam reforming of producer gas produced by biomass gasification

Sadooghi P, Rauch R. Mathematical modeling of sulfur deactivation effects on steam reforming of producer gas produced by biomass gasification. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;110:46-52.

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Product gas produced by biomass gasification contains small amounts of sulfur compounds (hydrogen sulfide) which can reduce catalyst activity during steam reforming process. Sulfur removal has a negative effect on process efficiency and steam reforming has to be run without cleaning the gas prior to the reactor. It is therefore of interest to investigate the effect of sulfur on the performance of steam reforming reactions. In this work a packed bed reactor filled with nickel based catalysts is mathematically modeled to simulate the steady state pseudo-heterogeneous equations representing heat and mass transfer in the reactor tube. Catalytic bed is subjected to hydrogen sulfide and an isotherm model for the sulfur coverage on the Ni surface is considered to exactly investigate sulfur poisoning effects on methane conversion, hydrogen yield, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration. It is shown that even when present in the hydrocarbon feedstock in small quantities, (ppm) levels, sulfur can have a significant effect in methane conversion and temperature distribution within the reactor. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Contributions at other events | 2013

Metodologie per il campionamento di particolato prodotto da apparecchi per la combustione di biomassa solida

Andrea, Pizzi. Metodologie per il campionamento di particolato prodotto da apparecchi per la combustione di biomassa solida, Ph.D. Thesis, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy, 2013.

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La combustione di biomassa legnosa con piccoli apparecchi e caldaie è oggi vista con rinnovato interesse per il raggiungimento degli obiettivi comunitari di produzione di energia rinnovabile al 2020. L’aumento dell’utilizzo della biomassa combustibile è di stretto interesse del settore agroforestale, per via del notevole indotto economico che peraltro interessa tutto il territorio nazionale. Tuttavia, la combustione della biomassa è legata ad una serie di problematiche ambientali quali le emissioni in atmosfera di polveri sottili che influenzano direttamente la qualità dell’aria. Si ritiene, quindi, che l’auspicato aumento dell’utilizzo delle biomasse, soprattutto ai fini della produzione di calore (riscaldamento ambienti), sia legata al contenimento delle emissioni al camino. In questo contesto, è quindi importante la corretta misura delle polveri emesse dagli apparecchi di riscaldamento domestico alimentati a biomassa solida, tenendo conto anche della frazione condensabile, come richiesto dalla normativa. Il lavoro mette a confronto due tecniche di misura delle polveri, la tecnica di prelievo a caldo con raffreddamento dei fumi in impinger e la tecnica di diluizione con tunnel. Sono stati selezionati per il confronto due apparecchi di ridotta potenza (< 15 kWt) ed elevata efficienza: una caldaia a pellet ed una stufa a pellet. In condizioni di combustione completa le due tecniche restituiscono fattori di emissione simili. Nella stufa a pellet la misura a freddo è maggiore del 20 – 30 % rispetto alla misura a caldo. La ridotta presenza della frazione condensabile è stata confermata dall’analisi NPOC degli impinger. Sono state misurate le emissioni totali prodotte da un utilizzo reale del dispositivo, comprendendo anche le fasi transitorie di combustione (accensione, riscaldamento a regime e spegnimento), solitamente non considerate nelle misure standard di laboratorio. La fase di accensione produce fino a tre volte le polveri emesse in condizioni stazionarie. L’emissione totale si riduce all’aumentare del tempo di utilizzo del dispositivo, rientrando nell’intervallo delle emissioni delle condizioni stazionarie dopo circa 6 h. Gli IPA, emessi in quantità elevate, sono costituiti maggiormente da congeneri a peso molecolare medio – basso, associati a minore tossicità. Il TEQ è funzione della potenza e delle condizioni di
combustione del dispositivo.


Conference contributions | 2013

Micro and small scale pellets CHPs. Technology survey.

Haslinger W, Aigenbauer S, Höftberger E. Micro and small scale pellets CHPs. Technology survey, European Pellets Conference 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Microbial conversion of H2S for sulphuric acid recycling

Rachbauer L, Gabauer W, Ortner M, Bochmann G. Microbial conversion of H2S for sulphuric acid recycling, 9th International Conference on Renewable Resources & Biorefineries 2013, 5th-7th of June 2013, Antwerpen, Belgium. (peer reviewed) (visual presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2013

Modellbildung von Luft- und Rauchgasrezirkulations-Zufuhren bei Biomasse-Feuerungsanlagen

Schörghuber C, Gölles M, Dourdoumas N, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Modellbildung von Luft- und Rauchgasrezirkulations-Zufuhren bei Biomasse-Feuerungsanlagen, 18. Steirisches Seminar über Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung 2013, 2nd-5th of September 2013, Leibnitz, Austria.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Modellierung und Regelung von Biomasse-Thermoölkesselanlagen

Dietachmayr, F. Modellierung und Regelung von Biomasse-Thermoölkesselanlagen, Master Thesis, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2013.

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Die Verbrennung fester Biomasse gewinnt als nachhaltige Form der Energieerzeugung stetig an Bedeutung. Eine mögliche Technologie stellen dabei Biomasse-Thermoölkesselanlagen dar, deren Regelungen bis jetzt noch nicht auf einem mathematischen Modell basieren und dementsprechend deren verkoppeltes und zum Teil nichtlineares Verhalten nur ungenügend berücksichtigen. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, ein für Biomassefeuerungsanlagen mit Wasserkesseln existierendes Modell sowie die darauf aufbauende Regelungsstrategie an die speziellen Gegebenheiten von Thermoölkesselanlagen anzupassen. Dazu wird zunächst ein einfaches Modell für Thermoölwärmeübertrager auf Basis einer Energiebilanz hergeleitet und anhand von verfügbaren Betriebsdaten qualitativ verifiziert. Anschließend wird die bei der Regelung von Wasserkesselanlagen eingesetzte Eingangs-Ausgangslinearisierung verallgemeinert. Darauf aufbauend wird eine Regelungsstrategie zur Regelung des Thermoölwärmeübertragers hergeleitet. Die Leistungsfähigkeit des Regelungskonzeptes wird schließlich in Simulationsstudien gezeigt. 


Contributions at other events | 2013

Modelling of biomass packed bed combustion

Mehrabian, R. Modelling of biomass packed bed combustion, Ph.D. Thesis, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria, 2013.

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 Im Bereich der thermischen Biomassenutzung (speziell Rostfeuerungen) werden CFD-Simulationen eingesetzt, um Hilfestellung bei der Diagnose und Lösung von Betriebsproblemen zu leisten sowie bei der Entwicklung von neuen Feuerungen und Kesseln zu unterstützen. Zurzeit sind keine Modelle verfügbar, mit denen sowohl die Vorgänge im Brennstoffbett als auch in der Gasphase einer Biomasse-Rostfeuerung mit Hilfe von detaillierten numerischen Modellen bei akzeptabler Berechungszeit simuliert werden können. Um die direkte Kopplung des Bett-Modells mit der Gasphase zu bewerkstelligen, ist es nötig, ein geeignetes Partikel-Modell zu entwickeln, welches die thermische Konversion (Trocknung, Pyrolyse und Holzkohle-Ausbrand) von thermisch dicken Biomassepartikeln beschreibt und mit bereits vorhandenen CFD-Modellen für die Gasphasensimulation gekoppelt werden kann. In diesem Schalenmodell werden die einzelnen Biomassepartikel als thermisch dick behandelt, d.h. die Temperaturgradienten in den einzelnen Partikeln sowie der gleichzeitige Ablauf mehrerer Umwandlungsprozesse berücksichtigt. Das Schalenmodell wurde mit Hilfe von gemessenen Partikeloberflächen- und -zentrumstemperaturen sowie mit Messwerten des Gesamtmasseverlustes während der Verbrennung in einem Einzel-Partikelreaktor validiert. Ein weiteres Problem, das bei der Simulation von Biomasse-Rostfeuerungen auftritt, ist die Modellierung der Gas-Festkörper-Mehrphasenströmung. Das Modell muss dabei in der Lage sein, den Einfluss der Partikel-Partikel-Wechselwirkung währenden der Partikelbewegung am Rost korrekt zu beschreiben. Aus diesem Grund wurde durch Kopplung von Euler- und Lagrange Mehrphasenströmungs- Ansätzen ein neues, dreidimensionales Schüttungsmodell entwickelt. Dabei wird die Partikelbewegung am Rost mit Hilfe eines Euler-Ansatzes (Euler-Granular-Modell) beschrieben, während die thermische Umwandlung der Biomassepartikel mit Hilfe eines Lagrange-Ansatzes und dem entwickelten Einzelpartikelmodell beschrieben wird. Das 3D-Festbettmodell für Biomasserostfeuerungen wurde eingesetzt, um eine 20 kW Biomasse-Unterschubfeuerung zu simulieren. Da es keine experimentelle Daten hinsichtlich der Bedingungen im Brennstoffbett gab, wurden qualitative Informationen hinsichtlich der Positionen der Trocknungs-, Pyrolyse- und Holzkohle-Ausbrandzonen, sowie mit Thermoelementen gemessenen Rauchgastemperaturen an verschiedenen Positionen in der Brennkammer zum Vergleich mit den Simulationsergebnissen herangezogen. Des Weiteren erfolgte im Zuge dieser Arbeit eine Weiterentwicklung des Festbett-Modells, indem der Strahlungsaustausch zwischen den Partikeln sowie detaillierte kinetische Modelle für die Gasphasenverbrennung im Modell implementiert wurden. Das weiterentwickelte Modell wurde mit Hilfe von experimentellen Daten aus Testläufen in einem Festbett-Laborreaktor validiert. Diese Messdaten beinhalten gemessene Konzentrationen von CO, CO2, CH4, H2, H2O und O2 im Rauchgas über dem Brennstoffbett sowie Temperaturen in unterschiedlichen Positionen im Bett und über dem Bett. Die vorhergesagten Werte zeigten eine gute Übereinstimmung mit den gemessenen Werten.


Conference contributions | 2013

New concepts for converting renewable electricity to transportation fuels by CO2 gasification

Rauch R. New concepts for converting renewable electricity to transportation fuels by CO2 gasification, 1st International Industrial Seminar Messer Benelux 2013, 18th of April 2013, Antwerp, Belgium.

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Other Presentations | 2013

Online-Monitoring von Korrosionsvorgängen in Biomasse-befeuertenAnlagen

Bernsteiner, C. Online-Monitoring von Korrosionsvorgängen in Biomasse-befeuertenAnlagen, Master Thesis, Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, 2013.

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Für den ökonomisch und ökologisch effizienteren Betrieb von Dampfkesselanlagen ist die Untersuchung von Korrosionsvorgängen in Wärmetauschern, verursacht durch das Rauchgas aus einer Biomasse-Feuerung, notwendig. Daher wurden bei Bioenergy 2020+ kurzzeitige Korrosionsversuche im Umfang von 300h Betriebszeit an einem Wärmetauscherstahl 13CrMo4-5 mit einer ONLINE-Korrosionssonde der Firma Corrmoran GmbH für die Erstellung eines empirischen Korrosionsmodells durchgeführt. Als Brennstoffe dienten Waldhackgut, Weizenstrohpellets und Altholz. Die Messung benötigt eine Ionen leitende Deckschicht, die sich erst am Beginn des Versuchs aufbaut. Aufgrund der fehlenden Deckschicht wird daher zu Beginn der Messung der Korrosionsleitwert unterschätzt. Daraus ergeben sich systematische Messfehler. Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Eruierung des Zusammenhanges zwischen Messfehler und Versuchszeit. Dabei stellten sich zwei systematische Messfehler als relevant heraus: •Die Abzehrrate ist zum Korrosionsleitwert proportional. Daher wird die Abzehrrate während der Eingangsphase der Messung unterschätzt. •Die Abzehrrate berechnet sich aus dem Korrosionsleitwert, multipliziert mit einem Kalibrierungsfaktor. Dabei ergibt sich der Kalibrierungsfaktor aus dem Verhältnis des gesamten korrosionsbedingten Materialverlustes über die gesamte Versuchsdauer, dividiert durch den über denselben Zeitraum integrierten Korrosionsleitwert. Aufgrund des zu Beginn unterschätzten Korrosionsleitwertes wird der Kalibrierungsfaktor und somit die Abzehrrate, berechnet aus dem reproduzierbaren Signal, überschätzt. Die Literaturrecherche zeigte, dass die Kinetik bei der Hochtemperaturkorrosion bei konstant gehaltenen korrosionsrelevanten Parametern einen linearen, parabolischen oder paralinearen Verlauf einnehmen kann. Die kleinstmögliche Abzehrrate und somit der kleinstmögliche Korrosionsleitwert zu Beginn der Messung ergibt sich bei der Annahme eines linearen Verlaufs, welcher die möglicherweise erhöhten Abzehrraten der Initialkorrosion nicht mitberücksichtigt. Aus dieser Annahme konnte der kleinstmögliche Korrekturfaktor cmin berechnet werden. Dazu mussten die Daten bei konstant gehaltenen Parametern gefiltert und daraus der zeitlich integrierte Korrosionsleitwert PL,Messung gebildet werden. Das Verhältnis von PL,Messung mit einem über die gesamte Versuchszeit konstant angenommenen zeitlich integrierten Korrosionsleitwertes PL,linear ergibt den Korrekturfaktor, der multipliziert mit den ursprünglich bei gleichen Parametern bestimmten Abzehrraten eine neue Abzehrrate k(t)neu ergibt. Der Vergleich mit den Ergebnissen eines Langzeitversuches unter ähnlichen Betriebsbedingungen in einem Biomasse-Heizkraftwerk zeigte dadurch eine Verbesserung der Abweichung der Kurzzeitversuche von 125% auf 55%. Aufgrund der Parametervariationen sowie der Temperaturschwankungen, verursacht durch Ein- und Ausschaltvorgänge der Anlage, haben die bei konstanten Parametern bestimmten Korrekturfaktoren für die durchgeführten Versuche nur bedingt Gültigkeit. Daher wurde in einem weiteren Schritt ein Korrekturfaktor cmin,var bestimmt, welcher alle Daten der Versuchsserie berücksichtigt. Dazu wurde das Signal der Eingangsphase durch ein gleichlanges reproduzierbares Signal, gemessen unter denselben Bedingungen am Ende der Versuchsserien, ersetzt. Es ergibt sich aus dem Verhältnis der zeitlich integrierten Korrosionsleitwerte PL,Messung der Originalkurve zu PL,idealisiert des idealisierten Verlaufs der Korrekturfaktor cmin,var. Dieser hat aufgrund der Berücksichtigung aller gesammelten Daten für alle bei den Versuchen bestimmten Abzehrraten Gültigkeit. Durch cmin,var konnte eine Reduktion der Abweichung auf 110% erreicht werden. Diese wird auf die im Gegensatz zur Langzeitmessung im Biomasse-Heizkraftwerk unterschiedliche Versuchsmethode sowie auf den unbekannten Einfluss der möglicherweise erhöhten Abzehrraten der Initialkorrosion zurückgeführt.  


Conference contributions | 2013

Operation characteristics of a bulk catalyst in a test stand under similar conditions to a firewood stove

Wöhler M, et al. Operation characteristics of a bulk catalyst in a test stand under similar conditions to a firewood stove, Word Sustainable Energy Days next 2013, 27th-28th of February 2013, Wels, Austria.

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