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Conference contributions | 2012

Annual efficiency of small scale biomass combustion systems

Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Schwarz M, Verma VK, Hebenstreit B, Carlon E, Golicza L, Hartmann H, Brandt J, Weissinger A, Berger H, Wörgetter M. Annual efficiency of small scale biomass combustion systems, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Arbeitsgruppe zum internationalen Erfahrungsaustausch der Probenahme und Analytik in Prozeßgasen

Kleinhappl M. Arbeitsgruppe zum internationalen Erfahrungsaustausch der Probenahme und Analytik in Prozeßgasen 2012, 22nd-23rd of October 2012, Hamburg, Germany.

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Conference contributions | 2012

AshMelT - Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets

Haslinger W, et al. AshMelT - Development of a Practical and Reliable Ash Melting Test for Biomass Fuels, in particular for Wood Pellets, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, flue gas, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant

Retschitzegger S, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Assessment of online corrosion measurements in combination with fuel analysis, flue gas, aerosol and deposit measurements in a biomass CHP plant, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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To systematically investigate high-temperature corrosion of superheaters in biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants, a long-term test run (5 months) with online corrosion probes was performed in an Austrian CHP plant (28 MWNCV; steam parameters: 32 t/h at 480 °C and 63 bar) firing chemically untreated wood chips. Two corrosion probes were applied in parallel in the radiative section of the boiler at average flue gas temperatures of 880 and 780 °C using the steel 13CrMo4-5 for the measurements. Corrosion rates were determined for surface temperatures between 400 and 560 °C. The results show generally moderate corrosion rates and a clear dependence upon the flue gas temperatures and the surface temperatures of the corrosion probes, but no influence of the flue gas velocity has been observed. The data are to be used to create corrosion diagrams to determine maximum steam temperatures for superheaters in future plants, which are justifiable regarding the corrosion rate. Dedicated measurements were performed at the plant during the long-term corrosion probe test run to gain insight into the chemical environment of the corrosion probes. From fuel analyses, the molar 2S/Cl ratio was calculated with an average of 6.0, which indicates a low risk for high-temperature corrosion. Chemical analyses of aerosols sampled at the positions of the corrosion probes showed that no chlorine is present in condensed form at the positions investigated. Deposit probe measurements performed at the same positions and analyses of the deposits also showed only small amounts of chlorine in the deposits, mainly found at the leeward position of the probes. Subsequent to the test run, the corrosion probes have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results confirmed the deposit probe measurements and showed only minor Cl concentrations in the deposits and no Cl at the corrosion front. Because, in the case of Cl-catalyzed active oxidation, a layer of Cl is known to be found at the corrosion front, this mechanism is assumed to be not of relevance in the case at hand. Instead, elevated S concentrations were detected at the corrosion front, but the corrosion mechanism has not yet been clarified.


Conference contributions | 2012

Automatic CFD optimisation of biomass combustion plants

Shiehnejad A, Schulze K, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Automatic CFD optimisation of biomass combustion plants, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy. 756-760.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Ökodesign-Maßnahmen für kleine Heizgeräte

Moser W, Haslinger W. Ökodesign-Maßnahmen für kleine Heizgeräte, 12. Industrieforum Pellets 2012, 9th-10th of October 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Contributions at other events | 2012

Über die Aufbereitung biogener Gase mittels Adsorption

Mayer, T. Über die Aufbereitung biogener Gase mittels Adsorption, Ph.D. Thesis, Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Behandlungsoptionen einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - ökologischer und ökonomischer Vergleich

Meirhofer M, Ragoßnig AM, Rixrath D. Behandlungsoptionen einer MBA-Schwerfraktion - ökologischer und ökonomischer Vergleich, DepoTech 2012, 6th-9th of October 2012, Leoben, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

BioCAT – Clean Air Technology for Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems

Haslinger W, et al. BioCAT – Clean Air Technology for Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Contributions at other events | 2012

Biocombustible materials obtained from biomass using cobalt based catalysts

Sauciuc, A. Biocombustible materials obtained from biomass using cobalt based catalysts, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Bioenergie in Österreich – Entwicklungen, Stand und Perspektiven

Ragossnig A. Bioenergie in Österreich – Entwicklungen, Stand und Perspektiven, Bioenergieforum Rostock 2012, 14th-15th of June 2012, Rostock, Germany.

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Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert die historische Entwicklung der Bioenergienutzung sowie deren aktuellen Stellenwert in der Energieversorgung Österreichs. In weiterer Folge werden auf Basis von Prognosen die zukünftige Entwicklung der Bioenergienutzung in Österreich sowie die damit einhergehenden Herausforderungen umrissen. Aktuelle Leuchtturmprojekte im Bioenergiesektor und Aspekte aus der österreichischen Bioenergieforschung ergänzen den Beitrag.

Ausgehend von der Analyse der historischen Entwicklung und der aktuellen Rolle der Erneuerbaren Energieträger im Allgemeinen wird der Stellenwert der Bioenergie im österreichischen Energiesystem insgesamt sowie in den Sektoren Wärme, elektrischer Strom und Treibstoffe im Detail diskutiert. Weiters werden die zukünftige Rolle der Bioenergie in Österreich und die Herausforderungen für den Ausbau der Bioenergienutzung umrissen. Exemplarisch wird die Rolle der Bioenergie für eine nachhaltige/regionale Energieversorgung des Burgenlands erörtert. Abschliessend werden Pilotprojekte im österreichischen Bioenergiesektor und die Strukturen der österreichischen Bioenergieforschung dargestellt.

Conference contributions | 2012

Biomass steam gasification - A platform for synthesis gas applications

Rauch R. Biomass steam gasification - A platform for synthesis gas applications, IEA Bioenergy Conference 2012, 13th-15th of November 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Biomasse befeuerte automatische Öfen mittels Thermoelektrik

Höftberger E. Biomasse befeuerte automatische Öfen mittels Thermoelektrik, RENEXPO 2012, 29th of November-1st of December 2012, Salzburg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Biomasse F&E Roadmap „Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen“

Haslinger W, Höftberger E, Schmidl C, Strasser C, Wörgetter M, Kranzl L. Biomasse F&E Roadmap „Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen“, Highlights der Energieforschung. Erneuerbares Heizen und Kühlen 2012, 19th of April 2012, Vienna, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2012

BioMaxEff – Cost efficient biomass boiler systems with maximum annual efficiency and lowest emissions

Haslinger W, et al. BioMaxEff – Cost efficient biomass boiler systems with maximum annual efficiency and lowest emissions, 20th European Biomass Conference 2012, 18th-22nd of June 2012, Milano, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment

Rixrath D, Piringer G, Ragoßnig AM, Meirhofer M. Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 18th of September 2012, Florence, Italy.

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Conference contributions | 2012

Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment

Rixrath D, Piringer G, Ragoßnig AM, Meirhofer M. Carbon Footprint of Sorting for a Middle-Caloric Fraction After Mechanical-Biological Treatment, ISWA Annual Congress Florence 2012, 17th-19th of September 2012, Florence, Italy. (peer reviewed)

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Management of municipal and commercial waste in Austria frequently involves mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) followed by incineration. A middle-caloric MBT output stream (lower heating value (LHV) = 9.90 MJ/kg WW, particle size = 20-80 mm) with a high proportion of inert material like stones, bricks, and metals (40.5 %m) is currently incinerated. Under favorable market conditions, it could be economically advantageous to split off a low-caloric heavy fraction (HF) that can be landfilled and to incinerate only the remaining, lighter fraction (LF) with a higher heating value. This study analyzes the specific global-warming potential (100-year GWP per tonne of input waste) of such an additional separation step and of the subsequent treatment processes. Four treatment alternatives were considered: a reference scenario without separation and three separation scenarios – a near-infrared (NIR) sensor-based scenario, an X-ray-transmission (XRT) sensor-based scenario, and a mechanical separation scenario using a diagonal sifter (DS). To calculate the specific GWP, the analysis applied techniques from life-cycle assessment (LCA). Primary data were obtained from pilot-scale and full-scale separation experiments, and from equipment manufacturers. Commercial databases provided secondary data. The results consist of separate LCA models for each scenario, including credits for fossil fuels replaced by LF incineration and HF landfill gas utilization. When only direct separation-related emissions are considered, the DS separation has by far the lowest specific GWP, followed by NIR-based separation, and by XRT-based separation. Overall specific GWP is strongly influenced by the choice of separation technology. It is lowest for the XRT scenario, followed closely by the reference scenario, while the DS and NIR scenarios show considerably higher results. Results are dominated by the net emissions from LF incineration. While incineration emissions are largely compensated by credits from replaced fossil fuels, credits for landfill gas utilization are much smaller than direct landfilling emissions. The ranking of the separation scenarios is largely determined by three waste stream characteristics: the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon content and the LHV in the LF, and the degradable biogenic carbon content in the HF. Changes in important modeling assumptions leave the ranking between scenarios unchanged. It can be concluded that – given the right choice of
separation technology – a small positive effect of sorting on the overall specific GWP is feasible. This
work demonstrates that global warming effects of waste treatment decisions can be estimated and
considered early in the planning stage of treatment system design.


Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Characterisation of Jatropha curcas seeds and oil from Mali

Rathbauer J, Sonnleitner A, Pirot R, Zeller R, Bacovsky D. Characterisation of Jatropha curcas seeds and oil from Mali. Biomass Bioenergy. 2012;47:201-10.

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This publication deals with the characterisation of Jatropha curcas seeds and the oil obtained hereof. The analyzed seeds have been harvested from hedges and plantations in the regions of Teriya Bugu and Bla in Mali in the years 2009 and 2010. The oil is obtained through solvent extraction. Parameters analyzed are those which are relevant for processing of the oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel), and include acid value, fatty acid profile and contents of S, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg. All oil samples are suitable for processing into biodiesel, but some of them require pre-treatment because of high contents of free fatty acids and phosphorous. The margin of deviation of acid value and element contents throughout the oil samples depends on the way of cultivation, harvest and storage of the Jatropha curcas plants and seeds. Despite high acid values, all oil samples show high oxidation stability. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-reviewed publications | 2012

CHP-Plant Güssing, Austria

Rauch R. CHP-Plant Güssing, Austria. Handbook biomass gasification - Second Edition. ISBN 9789081938501 2012:32-36.

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO aus Holzpellets. Bildung, Charakterisierung und Maßnahmen

Emhofer W, Aigenbauer S. CO aus Holzpellets. Bildung, Charakterisierung und Maßnahmen, 12. Holzenergiesymposium 2012, 14th of September 2012, Zürich, Schweiz. p 147-158 (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO off‐gassing from pellets: Impact of raw material choice and storage conditions – Implications for pellets standardization

Emhofer W. CO off‐gassing from pellets: Impact of raw material choice and storage conditions – Implications for pellets standardization, World Bioenergy 2012, 29th-31st of May 2012 Jönköping, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO2-Grenzvermeidungskosten alternativer Brennstoffe in der Zementindustrie

Ragoßnig AM, Plank R, Ehrenberg C. CO2-Grenzvermeidungskosten alternativer Brennstoffe in der Zementindustrie, DepoTech 2012, 6th-9th of October 2012, Leoben, Austria. p 283-288.

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Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert die Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Brennstoffversorgungsszenarios im Calcinator des Zementherstellungsprozesses auf die emittierten CO2-Emissionen. In weiterer Folge werden die Grenzvermeidungskosten für CO2 im Vergleich zum Referenzszenario (100 % PetCoke) berechnet und dargestellt. Als alternative Brennstoffe werden auf Basis von Betriebserfahrungen sowie großtechnischer Versuche die alternativen Brennstoffe hochkalorischer Fluff (Standardszenario) sowie Schilf (Szenario A) und biogen angereicherter Ersatzbrennstoff (Szenario B) und vergleichend dazu in einer Literaturbasierten Analyse getrockneter Klärschlamm (Szenario C) betrachtet. Um die Auswirkung sich ändernder Marktbedingungen auf die Grenzvermeidungskosten abzubilden erfolgt eine Sensitivitätsanalyse hinsichtlich der Brennstoffgestehungskosten für die alternativen Brennstoffe sowie drei unterschiedliche Preisniveaus für Emissionsrechte und Brennstoffgestehungskosten des Referenzbrennstoffes PetCoke.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion by removal with a hollow fiber membrane contactor

Lauterböck B, Ortner M, Haider R, Fuchs W. Counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion by removal with a hollow fiber membrane contactor. Water Res. 2012;46(15):4861-9.

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The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of membrane contactors for continuous ammonia (NH3-N) removal in an anaerobic digestion process and to counteract ammonia inhibition. Two laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed slaughterhouse wastes with ammonium (NH4+) concentrations ranging from 6 to 7.4 g/L. One reactor was used as reference reactor without any ammonia removal. In the second reactor, a hollow fiber membrane contactor module was used for continuous ammonia removal. The hollow fiber membranes were directly submerged into the digestate of the anaerobic reactor. Sulfuric acid was circulated in the lumen as an adsorbent solution. Using this set up, the NH4+-N concentration in the membrane reactor was significantly reduced. Moreover the extraction of ammonia lowered the pH by 0.2 units. In combination that led to a lowering of the free NH3-N concentration by about 70%. Ammonia inhibition in the reference reactor was observed when the concentration exceeded 6 g/L NH4+-N or 1-1.2 g/L NH3-N. In contrast, in the membrane reactor the volatile fatty acid concentration, an indicator for process stability, was much lower and a higher gas yield and better degradation was observed. The chosen approach offers an appealing technology to remove ammonia directly from media having high concentrations of solids and it can help to improve process efficiency in anaerobic digestion of ammonia rich substrates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Conference contributions | 2012

Development of an empirical model to describe the local high temperature corrosion risk of 13CrMo4-5 steel in biomass CHP plants regarding the fuel wood chips

Gruber T, Schulze K, Scharler R, Oberberger I. Development of an empirical model to describe the local high temperature corrosion risk of 13CrMo4-5 steel in biomass CHP plants regarding the fuel wood chips, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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Contributions at other events | 2012

Development of the 1MW Bio-SNG plant, evaluation on technological and economical aspects and upscaling considerations

Rehling, B. Development of the 1MW Bio-SNG plant, evaluation on technological and economical aspects and upscaling considerations, Ph.D. Thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2012.

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